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When two resistors, and , are connected in series across a

Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780321611116 | Authors: James S. Walker ISBN: 9780321611116 152

Solution for problem 122 Chapter 21

Physics | 4th Edition

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Physics | 4th Edition | ISBN: 9780321611116 | Authors: James S. Walker

Physics | 4th Edition

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Problem 122

When two resistors, and , are connected in series across a 6.0-V battery, the potential difference across is 4.0 V. When and are connected in parallel to the same battery, the current through is 0.45 A. Find the values of and .

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Monday, March 21, 2016 Recap  History of the relationship between humans and information storage devices.  Human nature: tend to classify and organize the world around us.  Internet speech practices of trolling and online identity. Analysis of Discourse of Trolling – Merritt  Trolling: a genre of internet practice; notes their links to “antisocial behavior” but instead sees them as “purposeful” and “complex”  Trolling vs. flaming: she sees what is popularly constructed as “trolling” as something else “flaming” or setting metaphoric fires on message boards/comments sections  Discourse Analysis used on the site reddit.com  She asks: how can we label practice “disruptive” if we do not stablish what is being “disrupted” Questioning the Normative “Troll”  Critical of the normal way people see trolling what measures “annoyance” or “anger” and how can we measure why someone trolls at a particular time  Problems with intentionality: are trolls really seeking just to troll or is it failure of communication Different personality types not syncing  Temporal scale: o Once a troll, always a troll o Is there a line that is crossed to turn into a troll Results  Paralinguistics played large role in discourse! o Different than in spoken language o Yelling, sarcasm, etc. conveyed through these paralinguistics signs  Noticed those who troll tend to construct a persona, or sometimes devil’s advocate role. o Social language: what she calls different languages and dialects based on culture  Trolling is “a genre of communication that poses a challenge to identify”  The threat of being trolled way even serve to socialize Internet users in certain communities into what is appropriate online communication Paralinguistics ALL CAPS, , I’m great.  Trolls weren’t related to anti-social behavior but they are not doing it just to be mean but they were trying to construct something but they couldn’t find a way how to. It is an internet practice Gender, Language and Power Performative Roles – Gender vs. Sex  All cultures have gendered predispositions  Judith Butler: o Borrowed from Foucault’s idea of discourse and power o Holds that gender is performative: not something to have but something to do  “Sex” considered biological: o Between 1 in 30k to 1 in 1k born “intersexed” o Current medical practices: is sex truly “natural”  Foucault & “discourse” Linguistic Anthropology & Gender  Gender is learned o Socialized  Gender is collaborative o Constructed through personal and social contexts  Gender is practiced (Bordieu) and performed (Geertz) o Ochs: “indexed gender”  Practice indexes genders  Western Samoa vs. United States  Gender is power Markedness  From linguistics: o “unmarked”: dominant default from(s) o “marked” is the irregular from(s) o Gender: male = unmarked, female = marked  Grammatical markedness: some grammars unconsciously divide world into a faulty opposition o Masculine generic pronouns (e.g. English & Spanish)  Los hombres piensan  Male/Female  Man/Woman o Semantic domain of “gentleman’s skills/activities”  Amalia Sa’ar’s study of Israeli linguistic practices: o Studied Hebrew and Arabic speaking women from different economic positions o Hebrew fashion designer & Palestinian elderly woman same language family o Both languages use masculine generic pronouns.  Some thought it would professionally help, others didn’t notice it at all until pointed out!  No simple direct relationality between grammatical and cultural genders. Early Gender Studies  Studies assumed categorical differences  Language myths that still persist: o Competitive vs. cooperative o Silent vs. talkative  These differences were never proven: considered true from the start! Late Gender Studies  Janet Hyde: Gender Similarities Hypothesis o Early gender studies perpetuate dangerous myths [“talkativeness”] o Meta-analysis indicated negligible, or NO, difference in terms of behaviors o Problems with the meta-analysis’ data o Later meta-analysis: boys talked more  Gender studies focused more on how identities emerged through time: o Embodiment theory: mind/body is a faulty opposition o Experience captured through body, not generated form mind o Mind does not trump body: they are co-present in any experiential phenomena. Either vice versa, it is all co-embedded. Wednesday, March 23, 2016 Recap Gender is:  Performed  Cultural  Relational  Collaborative/Competitive  Power  Marked/Unmarked depends on which flavor! Embodiment Theory  Philosophy in social and behavioral sciences emphasizing the body in the production of human thought  Lakoff and Johnson: o We define our world metaphorically to our bodies o E.g. work/love/life often defined as a journey of sorts  Sexuality bound up not just as our own subjective thoughts (mind) but also our habitus (cultural practices). o Cultural plays both subtle and active roles in constructing our theories of person and body  Recursive phenomena: o Information comes in through perceptual systems (senses) mind interprets according to theory of person/habitus/cultureactionreactionmore perceptual information  so on. “Talkativeness”  Matthias Mehl et al.: studied over 400 college students and words spoken. o F= 16,215 words/day o M=15, 669 words/day  Large individual differences around the average due to individuals’ habitus and daily practice “Competition vs. Cooperation”  Marjorie Goodwin: studied African American and racially mixed children’s speech behaviors across U.S. o Focus was on girls and their interactions in school  Certain activities had cooperative language involved  “He-Said-She-Said” moments: highly competitive linguistic techniques same as boys   more to do with societal structures than linguistic structures Eckert — “Cooperative Competition”  Notes a theory of person in US culture: o Men’s power based on public economic accumulation o Women’s power based on domestic capabilities that are inherently indexical to men’s power  Because of this indexicality, women’s repertoires are more status- bound, NOT status-conscious Eckert — Symbolic Capital  From Bourdieu: capital in the form of social prestige (not purely economic). o Goodwin: men/women symbolic capital o Women must justify status through relationships, not professional performance   “Girl talk” is a linguistic force for women to increase competitive edge Eckert — Dialogic Interactions  Being “popular” a defining system of thought concerning language in high schools.  What occurred: o Interview/discussion among 6 African American girls entering senior year of HS o Competitive attitudes over self-presentation (popularity) vs. likability o Defining what is even “popular” o A small competition arose between two groups: “popular” and “non-mainstream” Eckert — Results  At the end of the conversation, several issues of status and gender were settled between the different girls: o Girls reached consensus on importance of independence o “Shaky” consensus: religion  Whether there was consensus or not, girls’ discussion an indexical speech event to larger societal structures. o However: provided a means of discussing and forming own opinions outside normative bounds.

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Chapter 21, Problem 122 is Solved
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Textbook: Physics
Edition: 4
Author: James S. Walker
ISBN: 9780321611116

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When two resistors, and , are connected in series across a