If the average speed of an orbiting space shuttle is19 800 mi/h, determine the time required for it to circleEarth. Make sure you consider the fact that the shuttle isorbiting about 200 mi above Earths surface, and assumethat Earths radius is 3 963 miles.

Physics 2080 Final Exam Study Guide April 22, 2016 Amanda Biddlecome Equations 1) How to find temperature in Fahrenheit: F =(9/5)T +32° c *T =FFhrenheit Temperature *T =Cclsius Temperature 2) How to find temperature in Celsius: C =(T -‐3F)(5/9) *T =CClsius Temperature *T =Fahrenheit TemperatureF 3) How to find temperature in Kelvin: K =T +27C.15 *T =KKlvin Temperature *T =CClsius Temperature 4) Thermal Expansion (Linear) *ΔT is the same for Kelvin and Celsius *α can be represented as either Kelvin or Celsius and varies by material ΔL=αLΔT *ΔL=change in length *α=coefficients of linear expansion (Celsius degrees) -‐1 *L=length *ΔT=change in temperature 5) Thermal Expansion (Volume) *ΔT is the same for Kelvin and Celsius *β varies by material ΔV=βVΔT *ΔV=change in volume *β=coefficient of volume expansion=3α (Celsius) -‐1 *V=volume *ΔT=change in temperature 6) Rate of conduction of heat across a temperature difference *ΔT is the same in Kelvin and Celsius *k varies by material Q/Δt=(kA/L)ΔT -‐1 *Q=heat: J(smC) *Δt=change in time (s) *k=thermal conductivity of the material (W/(m-‐K)) *A=cross-‐sectional area (m) *ΔT=change in temperature (K) 7) The amount of energy radiated by an object *emissivity is a number between 0-‐1 and is unit-‐less P=eσT A 4 *P=energy radiated (W) *e=emissivity *σ=Stefan-‐Boltzmann constant=5.67X10 Wm K -‐8 -‐2-‐4 *T=temperature (K) *A=surface area (m) 8) Ideal Gas Law when given the number of moles *Be careful with the units in these values, especially pressure PV=nRT *P=pressure (atm or kPa or Pa) *V=volume *n=number of moles *R=universal gas constant=8.31 J(molK) *T=temperature (K) 9) Ideal Gas Law when given the number of molecules *Be careful of the units in these values, especially pressure PV=Nk T B *P=pressure (atm or kPa or Pa) *V=volume *N=number of molecules *k =Boltzmann’s constant=1.38X10 JK *T=temperature (K) -‐1 10) rms speed v rms =√[(v +v +…1v )/n]2 n2 *v rms =rms speed *n=number of moles 11) Average velocity v=(v 1v +…+2 )/n n *v=average speed *n=number of moles 12) Average Kinetic Energy 2 avg =(1/2)mv rms *K =avgragen kinetic energy *m=mass *v rms =rms speed 13) Average Kinetic Energy K avg =(3/2)kT *K =avgrage kinetic energy *k=Boltzman’s constant=1.38X10 J/K -‐23 *T=temperature (K) 14) rms speed *this is a combination of the two Average Kinetic Energy equations rms =√[(3kT)/m] *v rms =rms speed *k=Boltzman’s constant=1.38X10 J/K -‐23 *T=temperature (K) *m=mass 15) Internal Energy U=(3/2)NkT=(3/2)nRT *U=internal energy (J) *N=number of molecules *k=Boltzman’s constant=1.38X10 J/K *T=temperature (K) *n=number of moles *R=universal gas constant=8.31J/(molK) 16) The amount of heat required to raise a mass’s temperature *Be sure the units in the specific heat match the units of mass *ΔT is the same in Kelvin and Celsius Q=mcΔT *Q=heat *m=mass *c=specific heat c(J/kgK) *ΔT=change in temperature 17) The amount of heat required to change a mass’s phase Q=mL *Q=heat *m=mass *L=latent heat (fusion, vaporization, or sublimination) (Jkg ) -‐1 18) Change in internal energy ΔU=U -‐U f i *ΔU=change in internal energy (J) *U =final internal energyf (J) *U=initial internal energy (J) i 19) Change in internal energy *The signs in this problem are very important and can be tricky, so read the problem well ΔU=Q-‐W ΔU=change in internal energy (J) *Q=heat (J) *W=work (J) 20) Work done by an expanding gas at constant pressure *When you have a constant volume, the work will be 0 W=PΔV *W=work (J) *P=pressure *V=volume 21) Work found by interpreting a PV Diagram W=NkTln(V /V )=nRTln(V /V )f i f i *W=work *N=number of molecules *k=Boltzman’s Constant *T=temperature *ln=natural log *V =fifal volume *V=initial volume *n=number of moles *R=universal gas constant 22) Heat released at a constant volume Qv=nC ΔT v *Q =hvat at a constant volume *n=number of moles *C =svecific heat at a constant volume *ΔT=change in temperature 23) Specific Heat at a constant volume vC =(3/2)R *C =vpecific heat at a constant volume *R=universal gas constant 24) Heat released at a constant pressure Q =pC ΔT p *Q =hpat at a constant pressure *n=number of moles *C =specific heat at a constant pressure *ΔT=change in temperature p 25) Specific Heat at a constant pressure C =(5/2)R p *C =ppecific heat at a constant pressure *R=universal gas constant 26) Work done by a heat engine W=Q -‐Q h c *W=work *Q =heat released at hot temperature *Q =hcat released at low temperature 27) Efficiency of a heat engine e=1-‐(Q /Q )c h *e=efficiency *Q =heatc released at cold temperature *Q =hhat released at hot temperature 28) Heat and temperature relation *the temperatures T andc T areh ALWAYS in Kelvin (Q /c )=(T hT ) c h *Q =hcat released at cold temperature *Q =heat released at hot temperature *T =cold temperature h c *T =hot temperature 29) Efficiency of a Carnot engine e carnot =1-‐(T /T c h *e carnot =efficiency of a Carnot engine *T =cold temperature *T =hot temperature 30) Maximum work a heat engine can do W max =[1-‐(T /T cQ ]h h *W max =maximum work *T =cold temperature *T =hot temperature *Q =hhat released at hot temperature 36) Coulomb’s Law (Electrical Force): F=k(q q )/r1 2 2 *k=Coulomb’s constant *q 1 and q 2magnitude of charges (C) *r=distance between charges (m) 37) Electric Fields: E=F/q 0 *E=Electric Field (N/C) *F=magnitude of force on the test charge *q =0agnitude of the test charge 38) Combination of Coulomb’s Law and Electric Field equation: E=kq/r 2 *E=electric field (N/C) *k=Coulomb’s constant *q=magnitude of charge *r=distance between charges 39) Electric Flux (electric field perpendicular to a surface): φ=EAcosθ *φ=electric flux (Nm /C) *E=electric flux *A=cross-‐sectional area (m) *θ=angle that the electric field hits the surface at 40) Gauss’s Law: φ=q/ε 0 *q=charge (C) *ε =0ermittivity of free space 41) Work to move electric charge perpendicular to electric field: W=-‐q Ed0 *W=work (J) *q=charge (C) *E=electric field *d=distance (m) 42) Change in potential energy: ΔU=-‐W *ΔU=change in potential energy (J) *W=work (J) 43) Electric Potential: ΔV=ΔU/q 0 *ΔV=electric potential (V) *ΔU=potential energy (J) *q=charge (C) 44) Net potential (sum of potential energies): V=k(q /r +q /1 ) 1 2 2 *V=net potential (V) *k=Coulomb’s constant *q=charge (C) *r=distance between charges (m) 45) Electric Field: E=-‐ΔV/Δs *E=electric field (N/C or V/m) *V=electric potential (V) *s=distance traveled (m) 46) Conservation of force (E=E ):i f *all of these equations are equivalent to one another K +A =K +A B B (1/2)mv +U =(1/A)mv +UA B2 B (1/2)mv =(1/2)mB +q(V -‐V ) A 2 A B *K A and KB=kinetic energy *U Aand U =Botential energy *m=mass *v A and vB=velocity *q=charge *V A and VB=electric potential 47) Electric Potential for a point charge: *be careful to not mix up with electric potential energy V=kq/r *V=electric potential (V) *k=Coulomb’s constant *q=charge (C) *r=distance (m) 48) Electric Potential Energy: *be careful to not mix up with electric potential U=q V=k0 q/r 0 *U=electric potential energy (J) *q=charges (C) *k=Coulomb’s constant *r=distance (m) 49) Capacitance of the capacitor: C=Q/ΔV *C=capacitance (F) *Q=charge (C) *V=electric potential (V) 50) Capacitance for parallel plate capacitors with plates separated by air: *be sure to just use this for parallel plate capacitors C=ε (A0d) *C=capacitance (F) *ε =emissivity of free space *A=cross-‐sectional area (m) 0 *d=separation distance (m) 51) Potential difference across a capacitor: ΔV=Q/C *ΔV=potential difference (V) *Q=charge (C) *C=capacitance (F) 52) Energy stored across a capacitor: *all of these are equivalent 2 2 W=(1/2)QΔV=(1/2)C(ΔV) =Q /2C *W=work (J) *Q=charge (C) *V=potential difference (V) *C=capacitance (F) 53) Capacitance when space is filled with insulating material: C=kε (A/0) *C=capacitance (F) *k=dielectric constant *ε 0emissivity of free space *A=cross-‐sectional area (m) *d=separation distance (m) 54) Total energy stored in a capacitor: 2 2 U=QV =(1/2)aV=(1/2)CV =Q /2C *U=total energy stored (J) *Q=charge (C) *V=potential difference (V) *C=capacitance (F) 55) Electric Current: I=ΔQ/Δt *I=current (A) *Q=charge (C) *t=time (seconds) 56) Amount of work to move a charge from one terminal to another: *emf=an electric potential, not a force! W=ΔQε *W=work (J) *Q=charge (C) *ε=emf (V) 57) Electric Drift: I=qnAv d *I=current (A) *q=charge (C) *n=number of mobile charges/volume *A=area *v=speed 58) Number of free charge carriers: n=N /vA *n=number of free charge carriers *N =Avogadro’s Number *v=volume A 59) Ohm’s Law: ΔV=IR *ΔV=voltage (V) *I=current (A) *R=resistance (Ω) 60) Resistivity: *different for every material ρ=R(A/l) *ρ=resistivity (Ωm) *R=resistance (Ω) *A=cross-‐sectional area (m) *l=length (m) 61) Resistivity with temperature changes: ρ=ρ [1+α0T-‐T )] 0 *ρ=resistivity (Ωm) *ρ =resistiv0ty at reference temperature (Ωm) *α=temperature coefficient of resistivity *T=temperature ( C) o 62) Resistance with temperature changes: R=R [1+α0T-‐T )] 0 *R=resistance (Ω) *R =resistance0 at reference temperature (Ω) *α=temperature coefficient of resistivity *T=temperature ( C) o 63) Resistance: R=ρl/A *R=resistance (Ω) *ρ=resistivity (Ωm) *l=length (m) *A=area (m) 64) Power dissipated through resistor: P=IΔV=I R=(ΔV) /R 2 *P=power (W) *I=current (A) *V=potential difference (V) *R=resistance (Ω) 65) Potential difference across series circuits: *current is the same ΔV=IR eq *ΔV=potential difference (V) *I=current (A) eq *R =total resistance (Ω) 66) Total resistance for resistors in series: *this only works for resistors that are in series R =eq+R +…1 2 n *R =eqtal resistance (Ω) *R 1,2… =resistance for individual resistors (Ω) 67) Resistors in Parallel: *identical potential differences *charge is conserved I=I +1 2 ΔV=IR eq *I=current (A) *V=potential difference (V) *R =totaleq resistance 68) Total resistance for resistors in parallel: *this only works for resistors in parallel 1/R =1/eq+1/R …1/R 1 2 n *R =eqtal resistance (Ω) *R 1,2… =individual resistances (Ω) 69) Junction Rule: *one of Kirchhoff’s Rules IinI out *I inurrent going into a junction (A) out *I =current going out of a junction 70) Magnetic Force F=qvBsinθ *F=magnetic force *θ=angle between q and v 71) Radius of the circle a particle moves in r=mv/qB *r=radius *m=mass *v=velocity 72) Force on a current-‐carrying wire F=ILBsinθ *q=charge *v=velocity *B=magnetic field (Tesla) *F=magnetic force *I=current *L=length of the wire *B=magnetic field *θ=angle between B and I 73) Total Torque τ=IAB *τ=torque *I=current *A=area *B=magnetic field 74) Ampere’s Law B=(μ I)/(20r) *B=magnetic field *r=radius 75) Current in a Solenoid B=μ nI0 *μ =0ermeability of free space *I=current *n=N/l *μ =0ermeability of free space *B=magnetic field *N=number of loops *l=length of the wire *I=current 76) Magnetic Flux Φ=BAcosθ *Φ=magnetic flux (Weber) *B=magnetic field *A=current 77) Induced emf ξ=-‐N(ΔΦ/Δt) *ξ=induced emf *N=number of loops *ΔΦ=change in flux *Δt=time *q=charge *B=magnetic field 78) Induced emf in a rotating coil ξ=NBAωsinωt *N=number of turns *B=magnetic field *ωt=angular frequency *ω=angular velocity 79) Inductance of a coil L=(NΦ)/I *A=area *L=inductance *N=number of turns *Φ=magnetic flux *I=current 80) Energy stored in a magnetic field of an inductor U=(1/2)LI 2 *U=energy *L=inductance *I=current 81) Voltage in primary vs secondary circuits V =pN /N )V p s s *V =primary voltage *N =secondarys coil turns *N =ppimary coil turns *V =secondary voltage 82) Doppler Effect f =f(1+/-‐ u/c) *f=frequency *u=velocity 83) Speed of Light c=fλ *c=speed of light *f=frequency *λ=wavelength 84) Malus’s Law I=I cos θ 2 0 *I=intensity *I 0intensity incident on analyzer 85) Incident Angle vs Reflected Angle θ =i r *θ=iicident angle *θ =reflected angle 86) Lateral Magnification M=h /h =-i‐d /do i o *M=magnification *h=hiight of the image *h =hoight of the object *d=distance to image *d =distance to object 87) Mirror Equation 1/f=1/d +1/d =2/Ro i *f=focal point 88) Distance to the Image d =i/2 *d=distance to the image *R=radius of curvature 89) Snell’s Law n s1nθ =n sinθ1 2 2 *n=index of refraction (speed of light in vacuum/speed of light in medium) *θ =1ngle between normal and incident ray *θ =2ngle between normal and reflected ray 90) Critical Angle θ =sin (n /n ) c 2 1 *only when n >n *whe1 θ2 2 o 91) Young’s Bright Fringes dsinθ=mλ *d=distance between fringes *θ=between the central and m fringe th *m=fringe number *λ=wavelength *m=0,1,2... 92) Young’s Dark Fringe Above the central bright fringe dsinθ=(m+1/2)λ *m=1,2,3... 93) Young’s Dark Fringe Below the central bright fringe dsinθ=(m-‐1/2)λ *m=-‐1,-‐2... 94) Constructive Interference (Young’s) l2-‐l1=mλ *l=path length 95) Destructive Interference (Young’s) l2-‐l1=(m-‐1/2)λ *l=path length 96) Distance between peaks y=Ltanθ th *y=distance between central bright and m fringe *L=distance to screen 97) Finding position of bright fringes dsinθ=Δl=mλ 98) Position of m bright fringe y m(mλL)/d *y=position of fringe *L=screen distance *d=distance between slits *m=0,1,2,3... 99) Position of m dark fringe y =(m+1/2)(λL/d) m *m=1,2,3... 100) Constructive Interference (reflected waves) (1/2)+(2d/λ)=m *m=1,2,3... 101) Destructive Interference (reflected waves) (1/2)+(2d/λ)=m+(1/2) *m=0,1,2... 102) Wavelength of light in a medium λ nλ vacuum /n *λ =navelength in a medium *n=index of refraction 103) Destructive Interference (with a film made of a medium) 2nt/λ vacuum =m *m=0,1,2... *t=thickness of the film 104) Constructive Interference (with a film made of a medium) 2nt/λ vacuum -‐(1/2)=m *m=0,1,2... 105) Diffraction-‐Location of Dark Fringes with an aperture sinθ=1.22(λ/D) *D=diameter of the aperture 106) Diffraction-‐dark fringes in single-‐slit interference pattern Wsinθ=mλ *W=width of slit *m=(+/-‐)1, (+/-‐)2, (+/-‐)3... 107) Time Dilation 2 Δt=Δt /(√(0-‐β )) *Δt=moving time *Δt =0roper time 108) Length Contraction L=L √(10‐β ) *L=moving length *L 0proper length *β=(v/c) *β=(v/c) 2 109) Relativistic Addition of Velocities v=(v +v 1/(1+(2v v )/c )) 1 2 2 *v=velocity of object in stationary frame *v =1elocity of moving object 1 110) Relativistic Momentum p=(mv)/√(1-‐β )=(mv)/√(1-‐(v /c )) 2 2 *v=velocity 111) Total Energy of an Object E=(m c )/√01-‐(v /c )) 2 2 112) Rest Energy E 0m c 0 2 *only when v=0 113) Kinetic Energy K=E-‐E 0 114) Radius of a Black Hole 2 R=2GM/c 115) Quantized Energy of a blackbody E nnhf *E=energy *n=0,1,2,3… *h=Planck’s Constant *f=frequency 116) Energy for quanta of light E=hf 117) Maximum Kinetic Energy of the electron K max =E-‐W o *K max =maximum kinetic energy *E=energy *W =work function 118) Momentum of photons p=(hf/c)=(h/λ) *p=momentum *h=Planck’s Constant *f=frequency *c=speed of light *λ=wavelength 119) Compton Shift Formula Δλ=λ -‐λ=(h/m c)(1-‐coeθ) 120) de Broglie wavelength λ=h/p *λ=wavelength *h=Planck’s constant *p=momentum 121) Probability of detecting an electron in a single slit diffraction pattern sinθ=λ/W 122) Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle ΔEΔt>/=(h/2π) *ΔE=change in energy *Δt=change in time *h=Planck’s Constant 123) Balmer Series 1/λ=R((1/2 )-‐(1/n )) 2 *R=Rydberg Constant *n=3, 4, 5… 124) Paschen Series 1/λ=R((1/n )-‐(1/n )) 2 1 *R=Rydberg Constant *n =1,2,3… *n=n +11n +2,n 13… 1 125) Total Mechanical Energy of electron in Bohr model E n-‐(13.6eV)Z /n OR E =-‐(2.1n8X10 J)Z /n 18 2 2 *E=mechanical energy *Z= atomic number *n=orbital level 126) Momentum of electron in nth orbital p=mv=h/λ=nh/2πr 127) Angular Momentum L=rmv=nh/2π Main Ideas -‐Thermodynamics -‐Temperature *heat, thermal contact, thermal equilibrium, Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, Fahrenheit to Celsius to Kelvin conversions, how pressure and temperature are related, absolute zero -‐Thermal Expansion *calculations, Volume Thermal Expansion and Linear Thermal Expansion -‐Heat *calories, spontaneous heat flow, units, internal energy, conduction, convection, radiation -‐Thermodynamic Processes *ideal gas, pv diagrams, isovolumic process, isobaric process, Boyle’s Law, adiabatic process -‐Ideal Gas Law *different equations for moles and molecules -‐Units of measurement -‐Kinetic Theory *what it relates, how molecules act in a container, pressure, different types of speed and how to calculate them, kinetic energy, potential energy, internal energy -‐Heat *specific heats, latent heat, phase change diagrams, how to find total heat, difference in heat used to change the temperature and heat used to change the phase -‐Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics *what it is -‐First Law of Thermodynamics *equations, constant volume, how internal energy and temperature relate, quasi-‐static systems, reversible systems, idealized reversible processes, constant pressure and changing volume in relation to work, free expansion, adiabatic processes and how they relate to the first law -‐Specific Heats *how to find them at constant volume and constant pressure -‐Second Law of Thermodynamics *spontaneous heat flow, heat engines, work related to heat engines, efficiency related to heat engines, temperature related to efficiency and work, heat engines that work backwards, heat pumps -‐Third Law of Thermodynamics *Absolute Zero -‐Electric Charge *repulsion and attraction, positive and negative charges, what happens when you rub items together, charge conservation, charge of protons and electrons, mass of protons and electrons and neutrons, attraction to neutral objects -‐Insulators and Conductors *conductor, insulator, semiconductor -‐Coulomb’s Law *what is it, equation, Coulomb’s constant, relation to universal gravitation, action-‐reaction, superposition -‐Electric Field *direction of electric fields, force from electric field, direction of force in relation to electric field, superposition -‐Electric Field Lines *how to visualize them, four rules, originate and terminate, parallel plate capacitor -‐Shielding -‐Electric Flux and Gauss’s Law -‐Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential *electric force, potential energy, electric potential, potential difference, electron volt, net potential sum, work, reading parallel plate capacitors -‐Energy Conservation *potential and kinetic energy, regions of potential energy -‐Electric Potential of Point Charges *reading visuals, repulsion, attraction, electric potential versus electric field, ideal conductors, human body electric fields -‐Equipotential Surfaces and Lines -‐Capacitors *work, what is it, parallel plate capacitors, insulators, capacitance, discharges, dielectrics, total energy storage -‐Electric Current *current, circuits, batteries, emf, work, drift, drift speed -‐Resistance and Ohm’s Law *equation, visualization, how to graph it, ohmic versus non-‐ohmic -‐Resistivity -‐Power in Electric Circuits -‐Resistors in Series -‐Resistors in Parallel *potential difference, how to add them together, charge conservation -‐Kirchhoff’s Rules *Junction Rule, Loop Rule, Analysis and Current Direction selection, resistors versus batteries, 3 equations -‐Capacitor Circuits *how to add capacitance in series and in parallel -‐Magnetic Fields *repulsion and attraction, field lines, Earth’s magnetic field -‐Magnetic Force on moving charges *magnetic force, tesla to gauss, Right Hand Rule -‐Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field *circular motion, force, mass spectrometer, Cyclotrons, Synchrotrons -‐Magnetic Force Exerted on a Current-‐Carrying Wire Right Hand Rule -‐Torque -‐Ampere’s Law *Oerstead Experiment, Right Hand Rule, attraction and repulsion -‐Solenoids -‐Induced emf *Faraday’s experiment, primary and secondary circuits -‐Magnetic Flux *Webers, perpendicular versus angular -‐Reflection of Light *incident vs reflected rays, specular reflection, diffuse reflection, using geometry to find angles -‐Plane Mirrors *Properties, magnification -‐Spherical Mirrors -‐concave vs convex -‐Concave Mirrors *all rays involved, real vs virtual images, how to calculate heights and distances, objects outside of center of curvature, objects between the mirror and the focal point, f, M, d, d i 0 -‐Convex Mirrors *how images appear, f, M, d, d i 0 -‐Refraction of Light *Snell’s Law, how to draw Ray Diagrams, how light bends between mediums -‐Total Internal Reflection -‐Dispersion -‐Superposition and Interference *definitions, light as a wave, constructive vs destructive, Young’s Experiment, differences between dark and bright fringes, all equations involving this, how to number the fringes -‐Interference in Reflected Waves *constructive vs destructive, constructive vs destructive with film thickness -‐Diffraction and Diffraction Grating -‐Resolution -‐Postulates of Relativity *two postulates, non-‐inertial frames, principle of relativity *Time Dilation *use as a triangle, equation, event, proper time, physical and biological consequences *Length Contraction *equation, proper length, relativistic length contraction, length contraction as a function of speed *Relativistic Addition of Velocities *how to rearrange the equation to find all three velocities -‐Relativistic Momentum -‐Relativistic Energy -‐resting and kinetic -‐General Relativity *how it affects our lives, gravitational waves, black holes, Principle of Equivalence, annihilation Common Diagrams and Values -‐Absolute Zero=0 Kelvin -‐Freezing point of water=32°F, 0°C, 273 K -‐Boiling point of water=212°F, 100°C, 373 K -‐Specific Heat of water (c)=4.186 J/gram°C -‐Stefan-‐Boltzmann constant (σ)=5.67X10 Wm K -‐8 -‐2 -‐4 -‐1 -‐Universal Gas Constant (R)=8.31 J(molK) -‐Botzmann’s Constant (k )=1.38X10bJK -‐23 -‐1 -‐Room Temperature=20°C, 68°F, 283 K -‐Gamma (γ)=5/3 -‐Specific Heat at Constant Pressure (C )=(5/2)p -‐Specific Heat at Constant Volume (C )=(3/2)v -‐Charge of a proton=1.60X10 C -‐19 -‐19 -‐Charge of an electron=-‐1.60X10 C -‐Number of electrons in one coulomb=6.25X10 electrons 18 -‐mass of electron=9.11X10 kg -‐31 -‐27 -‐mass of proton=1.673X10 kg -‐mass of neutron=1.675X10 kg -‐27 9 2 2 -‐Coulomb’s Constant (k)=8.99X10 Nm /C -‐permittivity of free space (ε )=8085X10 C /Nm -‐12 2 2 -‐1Joule=1CoulombX1Volt -‐19 -‐electron volt (eV)=1.6X10 J -‐Farad (F)=1C/1V -‐12 2 2 -‐emissivity of free space (ε )08.85X10 C /Nm -‐Avogadro’s Number (N )=6.02X10 A atoms 23 -‐area of a sphere=πr 2 6 -‐1 Kilowatt hour=3.60X10 J -‐Circuit Analysis Conventions: When analysis direction and current direction are the same, negative voltage drop; when analysis direction and current direction are opposite, positive current drop; When analysis direction goes from negative to positive on a battery, positive voltage drop; when analysis direction goes from positive to negative on a battery, negative voltage drop -‐1 Tesla=10 Gauss -‐7 -‐0 =permeability of free space=4πX10 Tm/A -‐the minus sign in Faraday’s Law of Induction is a consequence of Lenz’s Law -‐Ohm’s Law: substitute ξ in for ΔV -‐Unit of Inductance: Henry’s [H] -‐Speed of Light (c)=3.00X10 m/s 8 -‐Mass of the earth -‐mass of an electron -‐charge of an electron -‐Gravitational constant -‐how to convert to electron volts -‐classical momentum=mv -‐length contraction only happens on plane of motion -‐Speed of Light (c)=3X10 m/s -‐light moves from high index of refraction to low index of refraction -‐magnification of a plane mirror=1 -‐Wien’s Displacement Law: f peak =(5.88X10 s K )T 10 -‐1 -‐1 -‐Planck’s Constant: EITHER (6.63X10 Js) OR (4.14X10 eVs) -‐34 -‐15 -‐Isovolumetric Process -‐Isobaric Process -‐Isothermal Process (Boyle’s Law) and Adiabatic Process -‐Phase Change Diagram -‐Heat Engine Diagram -‐Parallel Plate Capacitor -‐Electric Field Lines Examples -‐Electric Field Lines Plus Equipotential Lines Examples -‐Common Dielectric Constants (k) -‐Simple Circuit with resistor and capacitor (battery) -‐Common Resistivity -‐Resistors in Series -‐Resistors in Parallel