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Boron nitride (BN) exists in two forms. The first is a

Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl ISBN: 9780547125329 153

Solution for problem 120 Chapter 10

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Problem 120

Boron nitride (BN) exists in two forms. The first is a slippery solid formed from the reaction of BCl3 with NH3, followed by heating in an ammonia atmosphere at 750C. Subjecting the first form of BN to a pressure of 85,000 atm at 1800C produces a second form that is the second hardest substance known. Both forms of BN remain solids to 3000C. Suggest structures for the two forms of BN. 1

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Ashley Wilson Soci 1101: Reviewing for Exam 3 Chapters 10, 11-12 & 14 Go over notes (yours and lecture notes) Re-read summary sections in the textbook Go over key terms  Types of social mobility (3 ways of thinking about mobility) o Upward: earning a college degree, landing a higher-paying job, or marrying someone who earns a good income o Downward: dropping out of school, losing a job, or becoming divorced o Structural: a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts o Intragenerational: change in social position occurring in a person’s lifetime, within own generation o Intergenerational: upward or downward mobility of children in relation to their parents, in between o Exchange o Horizontal: changing jobs at the same level  Types of social system (open, close, total) o Open: class system (social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement) , permit much more social mobility o Closed: caste system (social stratification based on ascription or birth) , allows for little change in social position  Types/history of human societies and the extent of social inequality o With simple technology, members of hunting and gathering societies produce only what is necessary for day-to-day living o In horticultural and pastoral societies, a small elite controls must of the surplus o Industrial productivity also raises the living standards of the historically poor majority o Greater inequality is functional for agrarian societies, but industrial societies benefit from a more equal system  The Kuznet’s curve o High-income nations that have passed through the industrial era have somewhat less income inequality than nations in which larger share of the labor force remains in farming o Greater inequality is functional for agrarian societies, but industrial societies benefit from more an equal system o It was developed by comparing societies at different levels of economic development  SES, social class system in the U.S. (names, approximate income levels, population size, etc.) o SES (socioeconomic status): difficult to place individuals (households squarely into one or another social class), composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality  Wealth & income (differences, inequality) o Wealth: total assets that an individual/household controls (cash, saving, checking accounts and investments in stocks, bonds, and real estate, material possessions) o Income: earned wages o Upper class: ($205,000+) Ashley Wilson o Middle class: ($48.5K-205K) o Working class: ($27K-48.5K) o Lower class: (below $27K) o Under class: (“permanent class)  Differentiation, inequality, stratification o Differentiation: recognizing various differences in society o Inequality: the unequal access to survival resources in society o Stratification: the institutionalized social inequality, “system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy  Poverty, the poverty line, “who are the poor in the U.S.” (demographic info.) o Poverty: o Poverty line: an official govt. measure that defines those living in poverty in the US o Who are the poor in the US: children, those under 18, 48% of US poor are under 24; 2/3 of poor people are white, 24% African Americans are poor and are 3x more likely than whites to be poor; women who are head of households are at greater risk of poverty; greatest concentration of poverty is found in central cities’  Theoretical look at classism (classic & modern theories) o Modernization theory: a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations  3 & 5 basic survival/social resources o Three basic needs: food, shelter, clothes o Five basic needs: food, shelter, clothes, education, health care  Social class: pariah, 3Ps, the means of production, meritocracy o Pariah: negative status and social o 3Ps: Property, Prestige, Party o Means of production: capitalists (people who own the means of production) and working class (people who sell their labor) o Meritocracy: stratification based on personal merit  The 3 (or 4, or 2) world system: population & income-wealth divisions o First W.: Europe, North America o Second W.: (previous) USSR, Eastern Europe o Third W.: most of Africa, Asia and Latin America  NIEs, “four little dragons (or tigers)” o NIE: newly industrialized economies o “Four little dragons” in Asia: Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore o Since 1980s: China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia o Since 2000s: Brazil  4 theories of global inequality: market-oriented, dependency, world system (and state-centered)  Globalization, the world system theory: core, semi-periphery, periphery o Globalization: new, the increased economic, political, and political cultural interconnectedness of the world o Core: o Semi-periphery: o Periphery:  Wallerstein, Marx, Weber, Davis & Moore, Wright o Wallerstein: analysis the world economy as global web (the core periphery, and semi- periphery Ashley Wilson o Marx: class is based on the means of production, 3Ps, explained that most people have one of two relationships to the means of production; they either own productive property or labor for others, explained that capitalists society reproduce the class structure in each new generation o Weber: claimed that social stratification involve three distinct dimensions of inequality; economic inequality, status, and power o Davis & Moore: thesis that stated the functional analysis claiming that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society, also the greater the functional importance of a position, the more rewards a society attaches to it o Wright:  Types of poverty: relative & absolute o Relative: the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more o Absolute: a lack of resources that is life-threatening  Stratification based on income and wealth (domestic and global distribution of income and wealth) o High income countries: highly industrialized, 20% of world’s population, 77% of world’s income, 94%of world’s wealth o Low/middle income countries: agricultural or early phase of industrialization, 80% of world’s population, 23% of world’s income, 17% of world’s wealth, high population growth/density  Colonialism, neo-colonialism o Colonialism: breaded the international slave trade, the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations o Neo-colonialism: a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations  Race & ethnicity (definitions, differences, the process of classification) o Race; socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important a) Physical traits b) Social construct c) Definition can include biological, legal, and social meanings d) Process of “racialization” o Ethnicity; shared cultural heritage a) Cultural traits b) “enthnico” (nation/people) c) Social construct d) Definitions can include language, religion, values, regions of the country  Prejudice (def., and theories) & discrimination (def., and types) o Pre-judgement, an attitude (positive or negative) belief, feeling o Theories a) Conflict theory: resource competition b) Social-psychological theory: “displacement” or "scapegoat” theory c) Culture theory: structural dualism d) Authoritarian personality theory o Discrimination: behavior, action, treatment a) Individual Ashley Wilson b) Small/large group c) Institutional d) Intentional (“direct”) e) Unintentional (“indirect”)  Minority & majority o Minority: any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society set apart and subordinates  Self identity & social identity (labels)  Stereotype, scapegoat, racism o Stereotype: a simplified description applied to every person in some category o Scapegoat: a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom people unfairly blame for their own troubles o Racism: prejudice + discrimination + ideology, beliefs/attitudes in racial superiority/inferiority, conducts of mistreatment, the ideology that justifies racial domination/subjugation, a system of domination/subordination **IS REVERSE RACISM POSSIBLE NO**  Immigrant, emigrant, migrant worker, refugee, sojourner, bracero, un-/under-documented  Segregation, genocide, lynching o Segregation: the physical and social separation of categories of people o Genocide the systematic killing of one category of people by another  Assimilation, acculturation, amalgamation o Assimilation: the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture  plurality (or pluralism) & diversity o pluralism: state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing  “Dine,” AIM, API  Interment camps/concentration camps  (Significance of 1492, 1921, 1924, 1965, 1619, 1898)

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Chapter 10, Problem 120 is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 8
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780547125329

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Boron nitride (BN) exists in two forms. The first is a