Monochloroethane (C2H5Cl) can be produced by the direct reaction of ethane gas (C2H6) with chlorine gas or by the reaction of ethylene gas (C2H4) with hydrogen chloride gas. The second reaction gives almost a 100% yield of pure C2H5Cl at a rapid rate without catalysis. The first method requires light as an energy source or the reaction would not occur. Yet G for the first reaction is considerably more negative than G for the second reaction. Explain how this can be so.
Forensic Anthropology 3/21/16 Sex Determination ● Biological identity Biological Sex Differences ● Size ○ Males=Robust ○ Females=Gracile; appx 92% size of males ● Architecture ○ Females→ childbirth ■ Wilder pelvis creates different angles Accuracy of Visual Methods ● Skeleton full 90100% ● Pelvis 9095% ● Skull 8090% ● Long Bones maximum of 80% ○ All for adult remains Pelvic Morphology INdicator Male Female Sacrum Curved and Long Flat and Short Pelvic Inlet HeartShaped Oval Pubic Bone Shape Triangular Square, elongated Greater Sciatic notch Narrow,Vshaped Wide, Ushaped Preauricular Sulcus Absent or shallow Deeper or Wide Phenice Method, 1969 ● Three criteria ○ Ventral arc ■ A ridge on the ventral surface of bone ● Females: raised ridge, pulling away from the face of the pubic symphysis ● Males: ridge runs parallel to the face ○ Subpubic concavity ■ Curvature of the bone below the pubic symphysis ● Female: curved ● Males: straight or convex ○ Ischiopubic ramus ridge Forensic Anthropology 3/21/16 ● Ridge directly beneath the pubic face ○ Females: pinched and narrow ○ Males: broad and flat ■ How well are they defined is how all three criteria are decided ■ Takes a lot of practice Cranial Morphology Indicator Male Female Glabellar Region Pronounced Flat Supraorbital Margin Blunt Sharp Mental Eminence Pronounce Flat Nuchal Crest Defined Flat Mastoid Process Large and Robust Short and Narrow Mandible ● Females: Rounded, ushaped jaw ● Males: Square Metric Sectioning Points ● Vertical Humeral Head Female Indeterminant Male <43mm 4446mm >47mm ● Femoral Head Female Probable Indeterminate Probable Male Male Female <42.5 43.544.5 43.546.5 46.547.5 >47.5 ●