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’s Number and the Mole (Section)A sample of the male sex

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910417 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus ISBN: 9780321910417 77

Solution for problem 42E Chapter 3

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910417 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition

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Problem 42E

Problem 42

Avogadro’s Number and the Mole (Section)

A sample of the male sex hormone testosterone, C19H28O2, contains 3.88 * 1021 hydrogen atoms.: (a) How many atoms of carbon does it contain? (b) How many molecules of testosterone does it contain? (c) How many moles of testosterone does it contain? (d) What is the mass of this sample in grams?

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GEOL 1010 ­​ Dr. Coulson ​ ­ ​TEST 4 ​ STUDY GUIDE Highlight= Important Principle Highligh= Key Term Lecture 13: ​ Hydrology Why do we care ­ Need water to survive ­ Finite amount of water on earth Hydrologic Cycle ­ Ocean = biggest reservoir of water ­ rivers/lakes have relatively small amounts of water ­ Glaciers = second largest reservoir ­ Groundwater = third largest Groundwater ­ Precipitation can either hit ground and stay on surface and runoff, or go into ground ­ Infiltrat ­ process of water soaking into ground (groundwater) ­ Porosit ­ total amount of open spaces (cracks, pores) in area (%) ­ 3 types: 1. Intergranular Pores ­ little spaces in between grains a. Typically very small, but in large amount b. Most groundwater stored here 2. Fractures ­ any kind of crack or opening a. Larger than Intergranular, and can store lots of water i. Do not always hold lots of water (small cracks don’t hold a lot) 3. Vugs ­ large openings/holes a. Largest of the 3 (can be the size of caverns) b. Not very common c. Formed by some dissolving/erosion ­ Controls of porosity determined by sediment/rock properties ­ Sorting (shapes and sizes of sediment; how well do they fit together) (well­sorted ­> high porosity) ­ If poorly sorted, the openings b/w sediment is filled with very small sediment instead of water ­ Cementation: how well cemented sediment is ­ Permeability ­ how much water can move/flow in area ­ Want high permeability ­> easier to extract ­ Water table (WT) ­ boundary of zone of aeration/saturation (everything become saturated) ­ Zone of aeration ­ aka unsaturated zone ­ vadose zone ­ everything is not saturated ­ Zone of saturation ­ phreatic zone ­ everything is not saturated ­ Groundwater supply ­ Aquifer ­ any layer of sediment/rock that produces water ­ Recovered by people via wells ­ Types: ­ Unconfined ­ no other material that messes up flow ­ Self­sustaining ­ Aquitard ­ prohibits water ­ Confined ­ extra layer than unconfined ­ Results in more difficulty to refill aquifer ­ Artesian well ­ takes advantage of high water pressure of confined aquifers ­ Saves time and money ­ Ideal solution: want a sloped aquifer and place well at bottom of slope ­ Perched ­ aka perch WT ­ relatively small ­ Drilling shallow well = cheap and easier ­ Recharge ­ how fast are you filling aquifier ­ Discharge ­ how fast are you losing water ­ If recharge > discharge, water table rises ­ Can cause issues ­ Construction in water isn’t easy… ­ If recharge < discharge → overdrafting ­ Cone of depression ­ water table around well is sucked down ­ Subsidence ­ ground concave in a little ­ removing water quickly can alter structure of ground ­ example California 1970s high elevation than now ­ Salinity contamination ­ close to Coast could result in salt water going into well water ­ Desalination ­ getting salt out of water ­ adds a lot of expense to Water bill ­ GW Movement ­ Typically very slow (a few inches a day) ­ Good: most water stays in same place for long time ­ Bad: if water gets contaminated, then it sits there for a long time ­ Erosion can occur (slowly) ­ GW contains dissolved substances ­ CO​ 2and SO ​ ­ Dissolve carbonate rocks ­ Causes caves, sinkholes, etc. Case Study: GW Contamination ­ Love Canal, Niagara Falls NY ­ Early 1900s they tried to build a canal but never finished ­ 1940s: disposal of chemical waste in these unfinished canals ­ Buried it and left it ­ 1950s/1960s: large population increase in area ­ Chemical company sells land for $1 ­ 1960s/1970s: lots of rainfall and construction ­ Chemical contaminants rising ­ Increased health issues ­ 50% of babies born with defects ­ 1978 ­ homeowners learn there are 21,000 tons of waste underground ­ Kids would fall on ground and have a burn mark ­ August 7, 1978 ­ President Carter declared state of emergency ­ 1980s ­ Superfund Act ­ clean up areas with national help because one state couldn’t handle it ­ Chemical components responsible and had to pay millions ­ 2008 ­ survey of 4 states found 500,000 kids in schools 3.5 billion) people live within 120 miles of coastline ­ Coasts still on continental crust ­ Several forces act on environments (complicated process) ­ Changing just one factor can cause a huge impact ­ Processes: ­ Tides ­ Tidal Flats ­ area of land going above/below water during high/low tide ­ High tide/low tide controlled by moon ­ High tide: sides facing toward and away from moon ­ Low tide: sides ‘in between’ ­ Tide height: ­ Hawaii has tidal range of 1­2 ft ­ Bay of Fundy has range of 40 ft ­ Affected by amount of land around it ­ Waves: ­ Wavelength ­ distance between waves ­ Changes as they approach shore ­ The slow down ­ Bottom of wave drags on seafloor ­ Wavelength decreases ­ Wave height gets taller ­ Wave refraction ­ waves curve slightly ­ Waves come in at angle and therefore slow down at different speeds (leads to a curved pattern) ­ Longshore current ­ zig­zag pattern that forms by waves pushing into shore and back out ­ Longshore drift ­ process of longshore current picking up and depositing sediment ­ Shoreline Features ­ Depend on tectonics, rock type, sea level fluctuations, storm size/strength, etc ­ Types of coastlines: ­ Emergent ­ shoreline is uplifted/exposed ­ stacks ­ steep, small islands (typically no beach) ­ Terraces ­ large, flat, star­like areas ­ Each ‘step’ represents a former beach ­ Submergent ­ coastline sinking or water level rising (opposite of emergent) ­ Long, wide beaches and coastal plains ­ Spit ­ long, large deposits of sand still connected to land but extend out into water ­ Barrier islands ­ same as spit but NOT connected to main land ­ Unstable (due to lots of forces acting on it, even though it is just sediment deposit) ­ Constantly in motion Offshore Features ­ Continental margin ­ edge of continent under water that marks transition from continental to oceanic crust ­ Types: ­ Active ­ location of plate boundary ­ Passive ­ no plate boundary (ex: east coast USA) ­ Parts: ­ Continental shelf ­ close to shore and flat ­ Good for fishing ­ Lots of nutrients ­ Results in lots of predators (fish) ­ Economically important (fossil fuel hotspot) ­ Continental slope ­ edge of shelf that slopes downwards ­ Continental rise ­ right before oceanic crust ­ Abyssal plain ­ official start of oceanic plate Coastal Erosion ­ Can occur on emergent/submergent coasts ­ Natural process ­ Hazardous due to proximity of people to build on shores ­ Case Study: Cape Hatteras Lighthouse ­ Outer Banks, NC ­ Strong longshore currents ­ 1868: 1500ft inland ­ 1998: 120ft inland ­ Average rate of erosion: 10.6ft/yr ­ To fix this, 1999­2000: lighthouse moved 2900ft inland over 23 days ­ Cost: $15 million ­ Dealing with Coastal Erosion: 1. Zoning ­ build farther inland ­ Setback distance ­ how far inland is safe ­ calculated/expressed with Erosion Lines (E lines) ­ line along coast marking where erosion will move shoreline in future ­ Ex: E­10 line shows where shore will be in 10 yrs ­ Formula: (erosion rate)(interval)=E­line distance ­ How far is considered safe ­ National: E­60 or further back ­ 60 years due to building life expectancy of 50 years ­ SC: E­40 or further back ­ Tourism = #1 resource for SC ­ 2010: tourism = $1.8 billion ­ People want to be close to beach 2. Barriers ­ Weaken waves ­ Keep sand from moving away ­ Less erosion, more stability ­ Seawalls ­ parallel to coastline ­ Drawbacks ­ Block wave so it does not erode coast as much ­ Relatively effective ­ Expensive ­ Wear down in short time ­ Need repairs ­ Not visually appealing ­ Tourism affected ­ Groins ­ perpendicular to coast ­ Shut down longshore drift (NOT stopping waves) ­ Builds land on one side, but erodes heavily on other ­ Private properties are affected ­ Expensive 3. Beach (Re)nourishment ­ replacing eroded sand/sediment ­ Truck in or spray sand back on beaches ­ Case Study: Miami ­ 1950s: erosion wiped out beaches ­ 1960s­1970s: beach nourishment processes: HUGE success ­ 1980s: cost a lot but highly effective ­ New Jersey copies and loses sand due to erosion in short time ­ Redo it and change some things = success ­ Drawbacks: ­ Wildlife issues (nothing can survive in tight, compact, imported sand Lecture 15: ​ Non­renewable Energy **Geology in the News​ : Archean Eon glaciation (3.5 Ga) may have been greater than previously thought Energy ­ Runs everything ( technology, heating) ­ Affects personal budgets and national economics ­ Political topic­­­­where to get energy from Energy Sources ­ Renewable­sources of energy that will quickly replace itself ­ Time scale = useful for humans ­ Nonrenewable­sources that will never replenish or will replenish too slowly for humans to take benefit from Fossil Fuels ­ ~82% of energy in the US comes from Fossil Fuels ­ Coal 22.6% ­ Oil 36.8% ­ Natural Gas 22.9% ­ Hydroelectric 6.3% ­ Nuclear 6% ­ All other 1.4% How much is there ­ Reserve­ amount of something you have ready for use ­ Resource­ all of the stuff you have ready to use and the stuff you know about but it's not ready to use ­ All known stuff Advantages of Fossil Fuels ­ Historically cheap and abundant ­ Technology well developed ­ We know how to use Fossil Fuels ­ INfrastructure built to run on them ­ Gas in cars ­ Burning coal Disadvantages of Fossil Fuels ­ Nonrenewable ­ Deposits not uniformly distributed ­ Causes trouble between countries ­ Costs going up ­ Environmental damage Types of Fossil Fuels ­ Hydrocarbons ­ Hydrogen and Carbon ­ Combustible H­C compounds ­ Requires: ­ Area of high biological productivity ­ Massive amounts of biomass ­ Continental shelf = good place ­ Organisms have short life span and constantly dying and decaying ­ Relatively low oxygen in water/sediment ­ Type of Hydrocarbon: ­ Methane and Natural Gas ­ Advantages ­ Resources growing in recent years ­ Burns much cleaner than other fossil fuels ­ Price often cheaper than oil ­ Disadvantages ­ Safety issues ­ Sour gas ( contains H2S) ­ Filtering the gas is expensive and takes a lot of time ­ Still contributes to atmospheric CO2 buildup ­ Combustible ­ Too much can cause large fires ­ ­ Oil ­ Hard to get oil to form ­ Right temp and pressure to form ­ Oil window ­ Right conditions for oil to form ( 2­5 km, <150 degrees celsius) World Oil Supply ­ 62% in the middle east ­ 22% in Saudi Arabia ­ 2.5% in the US ­ Long time ago­­­middle east was under water with right conditions so a lot of oil formed there ­ Everybody friendly to Saudi Arabia because they have so much oil US Oil Production and Consumption ­ US uses 7.5 billion barrels each year ­ 2010: US imported 61% of the oil we needed ­ Cost = $337 billion ­ $640,000 per minute ­ 1973 Importing 50% ­ 2004 60% ­ 2007 75% ­ 2010 61% ­ US Consumption was greater than US production­­­­not good Fracking ­ Hydraulic Fracturing ­ Boost in production in recent years ­ Uses pressurized fluids to shatter rock below ground (creates permeability) ­ Advantages: ­ Get oil out of areas where traditional drilling cannot ­ Disadvantages: ­ Contamination ­ Not pure water is being shot into the ground ­ Contains chemicals ­ Chemicals get into ground water supply ­ May 2015­ water supplies in PA contaminated with fracking fluids ­ FIghts over regulating the industry ­ Possible to do fracking safely ­ Put to follow regulations causes time and effort and drives the cost up ­ Seismic Activity ­ Busting rock underground causes seismic activity ­ Example: ­ Oklahoma ­ Had to pass rules and regulations because of seismic activity due to so much fracking How much oil is left ­ Debatable ­ Lots ­ Find new deposits ­ Improve technology to get more out of deposits ­ Little ­ Existing fields producing less ­ New oil fields being found less often Case Study: ANWR ­ Arctic National Wildlife Reserve ­ Original resource estimated 20­30 billion barrels ­ Original reserve estimated 4­12 billion barrels ­ Should you drill in ANWR ­ Lots of oil ­ Land protected ­ Pro­drilling Side ­ 30 billion barrels = enough to last the US 60 years ­ Free the US from foreign oil ­ Lower gas prices ­ Only a tiny area of ANWR affected ­ 2000 acres of 19 million acres used for drilling ­ Problems: ­ 30 billion barrels ­ Assumes all 30 billion barrels of the resource will be available ­ Not realistic amount ­ Resources vs. Reserve ­ Free from foreign oil ­ The US imports 5 billion barrels per year ­ Not actually free from foreign oil ­ Lower gas prices ­ OPEC production drives gas prices not US supply ­ Not all ANWR oil would be used by US ­ Tiny area drilled ­ The small area to drill in does not include infrastructure ­ Roads ­ Houses ­ Communities ­ Pipelines ­ The area around it will be affected ­ No­drilling Side ­ Only 12 billion barrels­ not enough to fuel the US for even 2 years ­ Spills devastate the environment ­ Risk of ruining the protected land ­ Problems: ­ Spills ­ Exxon­valdez clean­up cost>$2 billion ­ 20 years later oil was still on beaches ­ Gulf spill cost $40 billion ­ Not all paid by gas company, but rather paid by tax dollars ­ 12 billion barrels is enough for 2 years ­ Assumes that there are 12 billion barrels available ­ Production rate: ­ 12 bbls in 2 yrs = 6 bbls/yr ­ Impossible to pump that quickly Other Oil Sources ­ Oil Shales and Tar Sands ­ shales and sands with high organic content ­ Problem: oil not fully formed yet ­ Can mine rock and cook it to complete process to get oil ­ Advantages: ­ Extensive deposit ­ Estimated shale resource has 4x more oil than Saudi Arabia ­ Estimated Sands is 2x global oil resources ­ Disadvantages: ­ Produce more greenhouse gases than other fossil fuels ­ 25­50% more Carbon Dioxide produced than normal oil ­ Not profitable at low oil prices ­ Cooking uses energy to make energy ­ Extensive mining operations ­ 13 million tons of shale to fuel US for one day ­ Uses lots of water ­ 72 billion gallons of water to produce enough shale oil to power the US for 1 day ­ Coal ­ Lots of biomass ­ Low oxygen ­ Forms in swamps and bogs ­ Stagnant water ­ Not a lot of exygen ­ Formation: ­ Peat (50% Carbon) ­ Lignite (70% Carbon) ­ Bituminous coal (70­90%) ­ Anthracite coal (90+%) ­ Advantages: ­ US coal reserve big enough to last 100+ years ­ Disadvantages: ­ More pollution than other fossil fuels ­ 25% more Carbon dioxide than oil ­ Mercury, arsenic, etc produced in burning and mining ­ Ash disposal ­ 130 tons/year in US ­ Coal burning releases sulfur ­ Causes acid rain ­ Effects: ­ Weathering damage ­ Causes problems in environment ­ Leaches nutrients out of soils **Geology in the News​ : New evidence supporting Anthropocene hypothesis ­ Strata forming today contains evidence of human activity Nuclear Energy ­ Non­renewable ­ Fission ­ splitting an atom into smaller parts ­ Large amount of release of energy (radiation) ­ Must safely harness energy ­ Uranium ore = key element ­ Ore ­ rock/sediment with high concentration ­ Yellowcake ­ processed uranium ore ­ Extracting uranium from ore ­ 235U and 238U separated ­ Very complex: must use centrifuge ­ Want to filter out ​some​ of 238U; not complete ­ Power plant: 3­5% enrichment ­ Weapons: 90% enrichment ­ 235U is what we want more of ­ Firing neutrons takes time and energy ­ Splitting 235U atoms starts chain reaction ­ Problem: easy to get out of control ­ cooling system removes heat energy ­ Requires water (4 million gallons/yr in some plants) ­ Advantages: ­ Large US reserve ­ ~30 yr supply ­ Reduce carbon emission ­ Decrease fossil fuel dependence ­ Produce very large amount of energy ­ 1kg Uranium = 3 million times amount of energy than 1kg coal ­ Good safety record ­ Current US use: ­ ~100 plants use amount 20% US electricity ­ Use declining since 1996 ­ Half of active plants will close by 2020 ­ No new reactors or plants built between 1978­2010 ­ 48% of ones ordered before 1878 never built ­ Nuclear Disadvantages: ­ Nuclear electric price tripled between 1970­1990 ­ Reactor safety (people fearful) ­ Nuclear proliferation ­ Are they making weapons or electricity ­ Waste disposal ­ Radioactive waste ­ Average power plant crates 25­30 tons/yr ­ 2007: US had 50,000 tons stored radioactive waste ­ Radiation varies which means safety varies ­ Types: ­ Low­Level (LL) ­ not too much radiation; pretty safe ­ Things were not initially radioactive ­ Class A­C: A=less radioactive than B, which is less than C ­ GTCC ­ greater than class C ­ Intermediate level in Europe ­ High­Level (HL) ­ main types from power plants/weapons research ­ Requires heavy shielding and deep burial ­ Globally generate ~ 12,000 tons/yr ­ Types: ­ Spent nuclear fuel ­ 20 tons/yr/plant ­ Trans­uranic ­ beyond uranium on periodic table ­ Long half­life (>20yrs) ­ Generated during weapons research ­ Long­term problems ­ What to do with waste ­ Store it ­ ensure stability and safety ­ Only 3 LL waste sites in US ­ Clive, Utah ­ Only accepts A ­ Richland, Washington ­ Accepts A­C from 11 NW states ­ Barnwell, SC ­ Class A­C from other 39 states ­ 2008: closed to all but 3 states ­ HL waste sites ­ Yucca Mountain = US 1st site for spent fuel ­ Supposed to open in 1985: hasn’t started ­ Geologic concerns (earthquakes, faults, etc) ­ Legal challenges: ‘not in my backyard effect’ ­ Wanting benefits of nuclear power but don’t want it that close ­ Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM ­ Only US site for trans­uranic ­ 20 yrs planning ­ ~½ mile underground carved into 3000 ft thick salt ­ Containers must not be high temp, cannot contain fluid, and must be ventilated to prevent explosion ­ Long­term plans: ­ Site expected to be full by 2070 ­ Monitored for safety until 2170 ­ Then marked as off­limits for drilling, excavation, etc until 12,170 ­ Other storage ideas: ­ Dump in ocean ­ Put in subduction zones ­ Launch into space ­ NONE of there are good ideas ­ Use it ­ Transmutation ­ using as a resource ­ Big in 1970s until banned in US ­ Currently being revisited in Europe ­ 137 Cs used for food irradiation ­ 241 Am used for smoke detectors ­ Radiation Levels ­ Lots of units (curies, becquerels, grays, rads, etc) ­ Rem ­ dose (amount) x quality factor (how likely it will cause biological problems) ­ Annual exposure from natural sources in millirems (mrem): ­ Cosmic rays ­ 30 ­ Radon ­ 95 ­ Medical ­ 100 ­ Fallout ­ 4 ­ Terrestrial ­ 55 ­ Total ­ 284 (0.3 rem) ­ How much is safe/unsafe ­ <5 rem/yr = no problem ­ 5­20 rem = problem long­term (higher risk for cancer, etc) ­ 20­100 rem = mild radiation sickness ­ 200+ rem = hair loss, ⅓ chance of death ­ 600+ rem = 100% fatality rate within 14 days ­ Contamination ­ 108+ sites in US considered unsafe ­ Accidents, mismanagement, storage, etc ­ Ex: Oak Ridge National Lab, TN ­ Over 167 sites where contaminants were released ­ Reactor Failure: ­ Three Mile Island ­ PA ­ 1979: partial core meltdown ­ No serious radiation released (still scared everyone) ­ Caused 30 year gap of no radiation­related activity ­ Chernobyl ­ 1986 ­ Fallout 30x> than bombs on Japan ­ 336,000 people permanently evacuate ­ 19 mile exclusion zone exists today Lecture 16: ​Renewable Energy **Geology in the News:​ estimated 75% of species going extinct leave no record ­ Implies that modern species could go extinct without scientists knowing Renewable Energy Basics ­ General Points ­ Each type has advantages/disadvantages ­ No one source will provide all energy; need varied approach ­ Advantages ­ Abundant ­ Produce little pollution ­ Low maintenance ­ Safe ­ Disadvantages ­ Technology still being developed ­ Expensive­usually ‘bottom line’ for people ­ Infrastructure compatibility ­ Acceptance by society Solar ­ All sunlight for 1 hour = 1 year's supply of energy ­ How can we harness ­ Solar Farms­ use mirrors to reflect sunlight onto receiver ­ Solar Electricity­ capturing sunlight and turning it directly into electricity ( Photovoltaics(PV)) ­ PV cells (PVCs)­ materials used to complete photovoltaics ­ Always improving ­ Currently at 45% efficient ­ New organic materials being studied ­ Using ~7.5% of Sahara desert land for solar farms = provide ½ of world's energy needs ­ Assumes 10­15% efficiency ­ Energy payback­ amount of time to generate enough energy to offset amount used to start ­ Since 2000 solars EPB dropped 2­3 years ­ Disadvantages ­ Insolation Variation­ rain/clouds would hinder as would night ­ Some pollution from make older PV cells ­ Where to put solar farms ­ SW US ­ People want to build on national parks, wildlife area, etc ­ Reduces cost but could affect endangered species Hydroelectric ­ Using water for energy ­­­­ turns turbines to make electricity ­ Advantages ­ Does Not pollute water ­ Quick profit ­ 5 years to recover plant construction cost ­ Disadvantages ­ Reservoir creation floods areas ­ Dams alter downstream environments ­ Site selection­ want a big river with lots of flowing water ­ Good spots already taken ­ Efficiency ­ Safety ­ Case Study: Banqiao Dam ­ Built to resist 1000 years flood ­ 1975 Aug 6­7­­­­2000 years flood ­ 41+ included rain in one day ­ Wave 6 mile wide 20 ft ­ 171000 died ­ Tides and Waves ­ Convert kinetic energy into electricity ­ Old devices too complicated ­ New buoy system is 2 components ­ Advantages ­ Simple device ­ Consistent ­ Concerns: ­ Rough environment ­ erosion, hurricanes, storms, wildlife ­ Changes to coastal environments ­ Reduces wave energy ­ Some areas far from coasts ­ Effects on wildlife Wind Power ­ Winds generate 5x more power than total global energy consumption ­ Advantages: ­ Cost down almost 80% over 20 years ­ Energy payback ~ 1 year ­ Disadvantages ­ Not consistent in many areas ­ Areas defined by classes (1­7) ­

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Chapter 3, Problem 42E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 13
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus
ISBN: 9780321910417

Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321910417. Since the solution to 42E from 3 chapter was answered, more than 289 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “’s Number and the Mole (Section)A sample of the male sex hormone testosterone, C19H28O2, contains 3.88 * 1021 hydrogen atoms.: (a) How many atoms of carbon does it contain? (b) How many molecules of testosterone does it contain? (c) How many moles of testosterone does it contain? (d) What is the mass of this sample in grams?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 57 words. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 42E from chapter: 3 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 09/04/17, 09:30PM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 13. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 305 chapters, and 6352 solutions.

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’s Number and the Mole (Section)A sample of the male sex