In this chapter we have seen that the reaction of potassium metal with oxygen leads to a product that we might not expect, namely, potassium superoxide, KO2(s). Let’s design some experiments to learn more about this unusual product.
(a) One of your team members proposes that the capacity to form a superoxide such as KO2 is related to a low value for the first ionization energy. How would you go about testing this hypothesis for the metals of group 1A? What other periodic property of the alkali metals might be considered as a factor favoring superoxide formation?
(b) KO2(s) is the active ingredient in many breathing masks used by firefighters because it can be used as a source of O2(g). In principle, KO2(s) can react with both major components of human breath, H2O(g) and CO2(g), to produce O2(g) and other products (all of which follow the expected patterns of reactivity we have seen). Predict the other products in these reactions and design experiments to determine whether KO2(s) does actually react with both H2O(g) and CO2(g).
(c) Propose an experiment to determine whether either of the reactions in part (b) is more important in the operation of a firefighter’s breathing mask.
(d) The reaction of K(s) and O2(g) leads to a mixture of KO2(s) and K2O(s). Use ideas presented in this exercise to design an experiment to determine the percentages of KO2(s) and K2O(s) in the product mixture that results from the reaction of K(s) with excess O2(g).
April 18-‐22, 2016 (Week Ten) Dr. David Carter World History 1020 The Three-‐World Order WTWA Chapter 20 Competing blocs -‐ The breakup of Europe’s empires and the demise of European world leadership led to the division of the world into three blocs The United States and Soviet Union – superpowers -‐ Size -‐ Possession of atomic weapons -‐ Each embodied a model of civilization that could be applied globally -‐ Both believed their respective ideologies had universal application -‐ United states: liberal capitalism -‐ Soviet Union – communism -‐ Two economic worldviews that’s hard to compromise – you must pick one or the other -‐ “The Third World” was the third bloc of nations that wouldn’t pick a side (“nonaligned nations” or “the developing world”) -‐ The People’s Republic of China goes from nationalism to communism -‐ Nationalists set up a rival Chinese government to communism on the island of Taiwan -‐ Even though they were both communist, the Soviet Union and China were drastically different, opposed to popular belief -‐ WWII wasn’t just a precursor to The Cold War -‐ The Big Three of WWII: FDR, Stalin and Churchill -‐ Churchill (and Truman) believed that the more Germans and Russians kill each other, the better things are -‐ Third World countries fought internal wars over the legacy of colonialism Internally and externally produced tensions and conflicts challenged the three-‐ world order WWII and its aftermath -‐ By the late 1930s, German and Japanese ambitions to expand and to become colonial powers like Britain, France and the U.S>, brought these conservative dictatorships into conflict with France, Britain the Soviet Union, and eventually, the United States -‐ WWII was more global in scope and in context than WWI -‐ Mein Kampf = Hitler’s concept of lefinsraum and German victimization from WWI -‐ Non-‐aggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union -‐ The French thought WWII would be like WWI, so they construct the Maginot Line, which would have been extremely beneficial in WWI, but not WWII -‐ Germany on the other hand, prepares for a new war (technological advances, new military tactics, etc.) -‐ WWII involves a lot more geographical areas, not just European-‐focused like WWI -‐ WWII completely destroys the line between civilians and soldiers -‐ The acts of barbarism robbed Europe of any lingering claims to cultural superiority -‐ In the war’s wake, anticolonial movements successfully pressed their claims for national self-‐determination -‐ Both sides dehumanize their enemies – war brings out the worst of all sides The war in Europe -‐ The war began with Hitler’s invasion on Poland in September 1939 and Britain and France’s decision to oppose it militarily Blitzkrieg and resistance -‐ Within two years, Germany and Italy controlled virtually all of Western Europe -‐ The German tactic of blitzkrieg, or lightning war, proved decisive -‐ Britain escaped conquest, but German planes waged aerial war on British cities -‐ The Munich Conference (October 1938) – Hitler demands that Czech’s relinquish Sudetenland to Germany, which leads to a huge conflict between Hitler and Chamberlain -‐ Chamberlain’s solution was called Appeasement. Desperate for peace, he gives up that part of Czechoslovakia and Hitler is “content” -‐ Switzerland remained “neutral” but still allowed Germany to use their underground tunnels for transportation -‐ Hitler surpassed any conqueror -‐ German’s attack Britain’s morale, but they don’t give in, making Blitz a statement made by Britain that they’re not backing down -‐ In June 1941, the Germans invaded and nearly conquered the Soviet Union -‐ Nazi occupation brought terror and displacement to Europe -‐ The war required more laborers; with men fighting, women became highly sought after for the workforce -‐ Twelve million foreign laborers were brought to Germany for war production goods -‐ Before concentration camps, the Germans would kill undesirables, at first, they would line them up and shoot them but then realized it took too much ammunition, so they would put them in trucks and reroute the exhaust supply -‐ leading to the idea of gas chambers -‐ The German offensive halted in the SU with defeat at the battle of Stalingrad in 1942 -‐ For the next two years, the Red Army slowly forced German troops from Eastern Europe -‐ In May 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally after Hitler’s suicide The bitter costs of war -‐ Soviets lost up to 20 million people -‐ Aerial bombings brought unprecedented hardships -‐ The Holocaust -‐ Atomic warfare The Pacific War Japanese efforts to expand -‐ Throughout the 1930s, Japan had extended its influence in Asia -‐ In 1931, Japan conquered Manchuria -‐ In 1937, Japan conquered much of coastal China -‐ During this war, Japanese troops inflicted terror on the Chinese population, the most notorious example being the “Rape of Nanking” -‐ The U.S. became the chief obstacle to Japanese expansion; as a result, Japan launched an attack on Pearl Harbor -‐ The strategy backfired and the U.S. quickly joined in WWII -‐ Justified its actions as anticolonial and “pan-‐Asian” -‐ Millions were drafted for labor and many Korean women were forced to be prostitutes Allied advances and the atomic bomb -‐ American mobilization tilted the balance of power in the Pacific against Japan in 1943 -‐ In 1945, Truman authorized the use of atomic weapons -‐ Japan surrendered unconditionally a few days after the bombs destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki -‐ In the war, African-‐Americans were still discriminated against and segregated The whole war was a war about RACE Rape gets turned into an instrument of warfare on all sides The beginning of the Cold War -‐ WWII left Europe in ruins -‐ Physically the continent was a wreck, and psychologically old regimes had lost credibility -‐ Socialism and Soviet-‐style communism attracted wide support Rebuilding Europe -‐ The principal Allies in the fight against Hitler (Soviet Union, U.S. and Great Britain) distrusted each other and disputed how to address Europe’s postwar recovery -‐ The U.S. decided to “contain” Soviet influence where it already existed in Eastern Europe, initiating a Cold War between the former allies -‐ After the Berlin Airlift of 1948-‐1949, Germany was divided into mutually hostile states, each taking a different side in the Cold War -‐ Americans realize that the Soviet Union is inherently aggressive and has to be contained (Keenan Telegram) -‐ The Iron Curtain is a metaphor used by Churchill to describe the separation between European countries caused by the Soviet Union -‐ The origins of the Cold War was that “one side saw offense (U.S.) where the other side saw defense (Soviet Union)” -‐ To shore up democratic governments and capitalist economies in Western Europe, President Truman announced the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan in 1947, which promised massive economic and military aid -‐ These efforts culminated in the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in1949, a military alliance between Western Europe and North America against the Soviet Union -‐ The Marshall Plan = economic aid -‐ Some people thought it was selfless while others thought it was solely based on self-‐interest -‐ The Truman Doctrine = military aid -‐ Both the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine are to halves of one whole that, while extremely expensive, is extremely effective -‐ To Stalin, containment looked like a direct threat -‐ Stalin believed the Soviet Union deserved to be dominant in Eastern Europe to protect its postwar security -‐ In 1955, the Soviet Union responded to the Western Alliance with a military alliance (The Warsaw pact) between itself and the nations it dominated after the war in Eastern Europe -‐ The United Nations is created from the “ashes” of the League of Nations The nuclear age -‐ The arms race led to stockpiling of nuclear weapons and multiple delivery systems on both sides -‐ These armories did prevent all-‐out direct war between the two antagonists U.S. vs. Soviet Union -‐ The Nuclear Triad (air, underground and submarine) -‐ Open confrontation emerged in Asia, where there were no well-‐defined Soviet and -‐ American spheres, such as existed in Europe after WWII -‐ The Korean War embroiled American, North Korean, South Korean and Chinese troops in a contest to control the Korean peninsula between 1953-‐1956 -‐ “The Korean Conflict” because Congress never declared it as a war -‐ General Douglas MacArthur -‐ In 1951, the U.S. signed a peace treaty with Japan, whereby the U.S. committed itself to defending Japan incase of invasion Decolonization • After the war, anticolonial leaders set about dismantling the European order using the lessons of mass politicization and mass mobilization developed in the 1920s and 1930s o Three patterns of decolonization and nation building emerged § Civil war such as in China o Negotiated independence in India and much of Africa • Anticolonial visions of modern life o Chinese nationalism § China was not formally colonized, but its sovereignty was compromised • Chinese nationalists thus identified ridding the nation of foreign domination as their number one priority § The fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 led to high hopes among nationalists that a new modern nation would emerge • Quickly, the new Chinese government disintegrated as military men § In 1919, the May Fourth Movement blossomed in urban areas to protest the Paris Peace Conference’s award of Germany’s concession rights in Shandong to Japan • Sun Yat-‐sen & Chaing Kai-‐shek • Japan issued 21 demands (War lord) • May Fourth Movement doesn’t succeed but sets stage for Chinese citizens looking to Russia for possible reform § Beneficiaries of this emerging nationalism was the Guomidang, founded by Sun Yat-‐sen • Looking to the Russian Revolution as an example, Sun allowed § After Sun’s death in 1925. Leadership of the Guomidang passed Chiang Kai-‐shek • Chiang launched a military campaign to unify the country under Guomidang leadership • His efforts were a partial success and he formed § Chiang attempted to mobilize the Chinese masses behind his effort into the 1930s • The New Life Movement, launched in 1934, attempted o Peasant populism in China: White Wolf § Guomidang leadership viewed the peasantry as backward and bereft of revolutionary. • The Chinese Revolution o After WWII, the Chinese communist party vowed to achieve full political and economic independence o The communist party had gained momentum over two decades § Soon Mao Zedong took over the leadership of the party • In 1934, the communists embarked on a 6,000 mile “Long March” to the northwest of the country to escape further attacks by the Nationalists § Under Mao, the party reached out to the vast rural population to fight the Japanese • Mao’s emphasis on a peasant revolution helped him win broad support in China and served as a model for other Third World revolutionaries after 1945 • Mao emphasized women’s liberation § After the Japanese surrender in 1945, the communists and the Nationalists commenced a bloody civil war • The nationalists, having lost credibility after their losses to the Japanese and because of postwar corruption, proved no match for communist forces and fled to the island of Taiwan in 1949 • Negotiated independence in India and Africa o In India and parts of Africa, the British and the French, realizing that only violent coercion would sustain their empires in the postwar era, withdrew in an orderly manner • Anticolonial visions of modern life o Imagining an Indian nation § Opposition in India to British rule was more advanced than in Africa § After the war, the British expanded the franchise § During the 1920s and 1930s , Mohandes Gandhi transformed the Indian National Congress Party into a mass party and an anticolonial movement o Gandhi and nonviolent resistance § Gandhi was Western-‐ educated § Developed a philosophy of satyagraha, or nonviolent resistance, that he employed against the British while living in South Africa § In 1919, the British massacred hundreds of Indians protesting policies at Amritsar § Gandhi and others called for noncooperation and boycotts § He began to turn the Indian National Congress away from an elite institution by opening it to anyone who could pay dues § In 1930, Gandhi organized an act of civil disobedience over the government monopoly of salt • He and supporters marched to the sea to gather salt for free • Journalists covered the march extensively • Gandhi’s efforts inspired many other acts of noncooperation and nonviolent protest o A divided anticolonial movement § Not all in the Congress Party or in other anticolonial organizations shared his views • Although he supported Gandhi