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Answer: Mercury in the environment can exist in oxidation

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910417 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus ISBN: 9780321910417 77

Solution for problem 112IE Chapter 7

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910417 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition

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Problem 112IE

Mercury in the environment can exist in oxidation states 0, +1, and +2. One major question in environmental chemistry research is how to best measure the oxidation state of mercury in natural systems; this is made more complicated by the fact that mercury can be reduced or oxidized on surfaces differently than it would be if it were free in solution. XPS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, is a technique related to PES (see Exercise), but instead of using ultraviolet light to eject valence electrons, X rays are used to eject core electrons. The energies of the core electrons are different for different oxidation states of the element. In one set of experiments, researchers examined mercury contamination of minerals in water. They measured the XPS signals that corresponded to electrons ejected from mercury's 4f orbitals at 105 eV, from an X-ray source that provided 1253.6 eV of energy. The oxygen on the mineral surface gave emitted electron energies at 531 eV, corresponding to the 1s orbital of oxygen. Overall the researchers concluded that oxidation states were +2 for Hg and -2 for O (a) Calculate the wavelength of the X rays used in this experiment (b) Compare the energies of the 4f electrons in mercury and the 1s electrons in oxygen from these data to the first ionization energies of mercury and oxygen from the data in this chapter (c) Write out the ground-state electron configurations for Hg2+ and 02-; which electrons are the valence electrons in each case (d) Use Slater's rules to estimate Zeff for the 4f and valence electrons of Hg2+ and 02-; assume for this purpose that all the inner lectrons with (n - 3) or less screen a full +1.

Exercise

One way to measure ionization energies is ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), a technique based on the photoelectric effect, coo (Section) In PES, monochromatic light is directed onto a sample, causing electrons to be emitted. The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is measured. The difference between the energy of the photons and the kinetic energy of the electrons corresponds to the energy needed to remove the electrons (that is, the ionization energy). Suppose that a PES experiment is performed in which mercury vapor is irradiated with ultraviolet light of wavelength 58.4 nm. (a) What is the energyof a photon of this light, in eV? (b) Write an equation that shows the process corresponding to the first ionization energy of Hg. (c) The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is measured to be 10.75 eV. What is the first ionization energy of Hg. in kJ/mol? (d) Using Figure determine which of the halogen elements has a first ionization energy closest to that of mercury.

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Chemistry 111 M/W 3:30-4:45 Professor Lake Week of 1/19/16 1) Elements vs. Compounds a. Element: smallest part of matter; cannot be changed or broken down b. Compound: combination of two or more different elements c. Examples i. CO 2compound ii. Hg element iii. C4 compound iv. Fe element 2) Substances and Mixtures a. Substance: definite composition that does not vary from one sample to another i. Graphite ii. Distilled water b. Mixture: variable composition that may change between samples i. Ocean ii. Atmosphere 3) Physical and Chemical Changes a. Physical: compound doesn’t

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Chapter 7, Problem 112IE is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 13
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus
ISBN: 9780321910417

Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321910417. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 13. The answer to “Mercury in the environment can exist in oxidation states 0, +1, and +2. One major question in environmental chemistry research is how to best measure the oxidation state of mercury in natural systems; this is made more complicated by the fact that mercury can be reduced or oxidized on surfaces differently than it would be if it were free in solution. XPS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, is a technique related to PES (see Exercise), but instead of using ultraviolet light to eject valence electrons, X rays are used to eject core electrons. The energies of the core electrons are different for different oxidation states of the element. In one set of experiments, researchers examined mercury contamination of minerals in water. They measured the XPS signals that corresponded to electrons ejected from mercury's 4f orbitals at 105 eV, from an X-ray source that provided 1253.6 eV of energy. The oxygen on the mineral surface gave emitted electron energies at 531 eV, corresponding to the 1s orbital of oxygen. Overall the researchers concluded that oxidation states were +2 for Hg and -2 for O (a) Calculate the wavelength of the X rays used in this experiment (b) Compare the energies of the 4f electrons in mercury and the 1s electrons in oxygen from these data to the first ionization energies of mercury and oxygen from the data in this chapter (c) Write out the ground-state electron configurations for Hg2+ and 02-; which electrons are the valence electrons in each case (d) Use Slater's rules to estimate Zeff for the 4f and valence electrons of Hg2+ and 02-; assume for this purpose that all the inner lectrons with (n - 3) or less screen a full +1.ExerciseOne way to measure ionization energies is ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), a technique based on the photoelectric effect, coo (Section) In PES, monochromatic light is directed onto a sample, causing electrons to be emitted. The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is measured. The difference between the energy of the photons and the kinetic energy of the electrons corresponds to the energy needed to remove the electrons (that is, the ionization energy). Suppose that a PES experiment is performed in which mercury vapor is irradiated with ultraviolet light of wavelength 58.4 nm. (a) What is the energyof a photon of this light, in eV? (b) Write an equation that shows the process corresponding to the first ionization energy of Hg. (c) The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is measured to be 10.75 eV. What is the first ionization energy of Hg. in kJ/mol? (d) Using Figure determine which of the halogen elements has a first ionization energy closest to that of mercury.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 445 words. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 112IE from chapter: 7 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 09/04/17, 09:30PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 305 chapters, and 6352 solutions. Since the solution to 112IE from 7 chapter was answered, more than 281 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer.

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Answer: Mercury in the environment can exist in oxidation