Show that (a) the function fC:.) = Log(::.. - i) is analytic everywhere except on the portion x ::: 0 of the liner= I: (/>) the function Lo"(-~ 4 l /"I::..)= ::- - , . ::_2 + i is analytic everywhere except at the points (I x ::: -4 of the real axis.
Chapter 15- Middle Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development 4/7/16 Life Expectancy • Americans = 79 years o Women tend to live longer • Half-way point = 39.5 years • When does “middle age” begin The Benchmarks of Change • Height o “Settling” beginning around 55 years o Osteoporosis (women at greater risk) o Average loss: 1 inch in men; 2 inches in women • Weight o “Middle-age spread” § Metabolism slows o Obesity is a concern, but it’s usually avoidable • Strength o Average 10% reduction by 60 years Changes in Senses • Vision o Vision and visual acuity (sharpness- ability to discern fine details) begin to decline around 40 years § Changes in the shape, elasticity and transparency of the lens § Presbyopia: the loss of acuity up close (not a disease) § Cataracts: lens of the eye becomes more opaque, making vision blurry (is a disease) § Glaucoma: increased pressure within the eye (is a disease) o Around age 40, the ability to discern fine detail begins to drop o Corso (1992) found that dynamic acuity (ability to discern details that are moving) may decline more rapidly than static acuity • Hearing o Changes begin around 30 years o Usually less evident than changes in eyesight § Loss of cilia, or hair cells, in the inner ear • Lose smaller cilia first (smaller cilia = higher pitch sounds) § Earn drum becomes less elastic with age o Presbycusis: age-related hearing loss, especially high frequencies o Sorry guys; men are more prone to hearing loss o Occupation/prolonged exposure to high-volume noises worsen hearing loss • Taste and smell o Taste buds replenished at a slower rate after 40 years o Smell receptors deteriorate o Overeat or over-salt food • Reaction time o Some increase in reaction time, but usually not a very noticeable difference § Increase in reaction time = taking longer to react § Not really that noticeable o From age 20 to 60, there’s a 20% increase on simple tasks o Less of an increase on complex tasks § Driving- reaction time doesn’t really change § Drivers in middle adulthood have fewer accidents than drivers in their 20s Changes in Appearance • Physical changes occur throughout the lifespan • Changes in middle adulthood may have more significance (why, everywhere, everyone – these things are discussed in the chapter in the textbook) o People don’t want get old o Not exclusive to Western cultures, but Western cultures do put more emphasis on youth and being young o But in some cultures, being older is better (example: you’re wiser) o For women, it might be more emotional than for men • Delaying unwanted changes o No surprises here: lifestyle is important § Healthy diet § Regular exercise § No smoking and minimal drinking • Better health • Improved strength and endurance • Healthier body composition • Maintain neural functioning • Lower risk of heart disease and osteoporosis • Lower stress and enhance well-being o “Use it or lose it” Hormones • Human growth hormone (HGH) declines • Sex hormones (e.g. testosterone and estrogen) being to decline • Changes in Reproduction- Female o Female Climacteric: the transition from being able to have children to not § Average age 45 years, and may last 15-20 years § Identifiable signs of the climacteric: • Irregular periods • Perimenopause: hormone-related changes occurring about 10 years before menopause • Menopause: the cessation of menstruation (40-60 years) • Hot flashes – some, but not everyone • About 10% women experience severe symptoms, but many more report no adverse symptoms o Differences by race/ethnicity o Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT) § In the past, ERT is the first choice in treating climacteric symptoms § Reduced risk of heart disease, bone loss, stroke and colon cancer § However, maybe an increased risk of breast cancer and blood clots o Women’s Health Initiative study (2002) found that risks outweighed benefits o Current thinking – it depends on the individual. Some women are good candidates while others aren’t • Reproduction after Menopause o Age of becoming a mother is more flexible now than in the past o Average age of new mothers 26-29, up from 23-25 in the 1970s § Almost a global phenomenon § This increase is seen in several countries across the developed and developing world o New reproductive methods are becoming more common § Egg freezing/harvesting, egg donation, surrogacy § Implanting embryo after menopause can still lead to viable pregnancy o Advantages vs. Disadvantages of being an older new mother § Advantages • More experience and more resources overall • More responsible • More money • Established career • Better educated • Better equipped to deal with baby care, health concerns § Disadvantages • Greater risk for chromosomal abnormalities • Greater chance of miscarriage after 40 years of age • Chronic health conditions may co-occur with pregnancy (e.g., hypertension, diabetes) • Changes in Reproduction- Male o Male climacteric: period of change in male reproductive system § Typically begins between 50-59 years § Unlike the female climacteric, no exact start point § Men are able to father children throughout middle adulthood o Specific changes: § Decline in testosterone and sperm count § Enlargement of the prostate gland possibly leading to difficulties in urination § Erectile dysfunction • Sexuality in Middle Adulthood o Frequency of intercourse tends to decline in middle adulthood (there’s a chart/table in the textbook) o However sexual activity continues to be important part of life o Many report more sexual freedom and enjoyment compared to earlier in life § Children are grown and away from home § Less concern about pregnancy § Less self-consciousness about your body or like, how you are in bed o However, some experience difficulties § Erectile dysfunction in men § Pain during intercourse reported by a small proportion of women Health in Middle Adulthood • On average, middle adulthood is a period of relative good health o Most report few to no health problems or disabilities o Compared to younger cohorts, people 45-65 years are at less risk of infections, allergies, respiratory diseases and digestive problems § Possible reasons why: immunity, take less unnecessary risks • However, concern about health tends to increase • Also certain chronic diseases (e.g., arthritis, diabetes, hypertension) begin to appear in middle adulthood • Reasons for Individual Variation in Health o Most middle-aged adults are relatively healthy o Others experience the onset of chronic disease o Factors that contribute to variations: § Lifestyle is important in reducing risk § Genetics play a role • Hypertension often runs in families § Socioeconomic status and environment • Generally, lower SES means more disability and health problems • For example, death rate of middle-aged African Americans is 2x higher than White Americans • But when controlling for SES, there’s no significant difference o Some personality traits are linked to increased risk of disease § Type A: hostility, driven, multi-tasking § Type D: someone who’s more distressed/neurotic than others • D = distress • Experience more distress, depression, high-strung, etc. • Longitudinal studies with middle-aged subjects found link between type D personality and: o Early death o Increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood • Intelligence in Middle Adulthood o Does intelligence decline in middle adulthood § Complicated by the way we define intelligence and by how we study development o Multiple kinds of intelligence § Crystalized: information, skills and strategies acquired with experience § Fluid: processing, reasoning and memory o When looking at two kinds of intelligence separately… § Fluid intelligence does tend to decline with age § Crystalized intelligence, however, tends to stay the same or even increase • Why do cognitive changes happen o Brain functioning begins to change in middle adulthood o Genes involved in memory, learning and mental flexibility begin to function less efficiently around 40 years o Adults in middle adulthood use different brain regions • It’s not all bad o Competence in one’s career continues to improve o Middle-aged adults come to hold some of the most influential positions in society • Development of Expertise •