In a particular region there is a uniform current density of 15 A/m2 in the positive z direction. What is the value of ~ B d'S when that line integral is calculated along the three straight-line segments from (x, y, z) coordinates (4d,0, 0) to (4d, 3d, 0) to (0, 0, 0) to (4d, 0, 0), where d = 20 cm?
3/29 Intimacy Encoding NV Signals of Love • 60 dating couples • discussion, first date, plans for tomorrow, area of conflict, etc. • self-reports of love correlated with: • ^ affirmative head nods • ^ Duchenne smiles • ^ forward lean (toward partner) • ^ hand gestures NV Behavior and Relational States • 20 distress marriages and 20 non-distresses married couples • conflict resolution task • then, half were instructed to act happy and content (fake good) and half to act unhappy and distressed (fake bad) • Verbal (compromise, problem description, agreement, approval, excuse, criticize) and nonverbal (attention, positive physical, no response, laugh) behaviors were recorded • Both distressed and non couples altered behavior in response to the instruction to fake good or bad • There were no differences in couples nv behaviors (+/-) in the fake good and bad conditions • **Couples can fake happiness or distress verbally but their nonverbal behaviors reveal the true state of relationship** Gaze and Intimacy • Couples who score high on romantic love scales exhibit a lot of mutual gaze • Need for affiliation in positively correlated with mutual gaze • Better adjusted married couples exhibit more mutual gaze than distressed couples Gaze and Initial Attraction • Heterosexual participants look at photos of men and women • Remote eye tracking recoding system • All participants initially attracted to the face of opposite sex models • Then…. Women shift attention to legs, men shift attention to chest Speech Rate and intimacy • Fewer and shorter pauses • Faster speech rate (enthusiasm) • Matching partners vocal cues (accent/loudness) Pitch and Romantic Relationships • Call close same-sex friend and a romantic partner • “How are you” “what are you doing” • men raised pitch when talking to romantic partner vs. friend • women lowered pitch when talking to romantic partner vs. friend Pitch and Target Attractiveness • Make phone calls to attractive and unattractive targets • Showed them photos in advance of making phone calls • No answer, so callers left voicemail • Male and Female callers spoke in lower pitch when calling attractive targets Gesture and Intimacy • In positive, friendly interactions, people exhibit more object focused gestures and fewer body focused gestures • We also use more illustrators when interacting with friendly others Posture and Intimacy • More forward lean • Direct shoulder/body orientation • Greater postural mimicry Smiles and Intimacy • Not a very reliable sign of intimacy and involvement • Some people smile in more negative situations then in positive ones Romantic Display Rules • Male subjects watched 3 videos • Horror films, infants, and neutral films • Thought they were being observed by an attractive or unattractive female research assistant • Attractive observer = frowned less while watching horror film • Attractive observer= smiled more while watching infant film • Impression management via facial expression Space and Intimacy • Intimate space = 0-18 inches • Couples with direct body orientation Touch and Intimacy • Moure touch (in middle stages of close relationships) • Greater body accessibility Decoding of NV Behavior of Intimacy • Shrout and Fiske: Coded behaviors of interactions • Speakers were rated on socially desirable traits (friendly, snobbish etc.) • Which behaviors were associated with judgments of social desirability • Results: o More head nods, more back channels, longer smile duration, more frequent filled pauses, longer gaze duration Decoding touch and Intimacy • Touch to face= most affection, attraction and love • Touch to waist and forearm show high romantic attraction o But most indicative of harassment Relationship Closeness and Decoding NV Behavior • Hypothesis: Close friends and better decoders of each others’ nonverbal than strangers are • Close friends performed worse than acquaintances at decoding partners’ negative affect when partners attempted to disguise their negative emotion (sadness and anger) • Close friends performed worse than strangers in this condition • Motivated Inaccuracy Model: when a relationship partner has thoughts or feelings that could prove to being distressing to the perceiver, and are not clearly expressed, we choose to “look the other way” Decoding of Negative Facial Expression and Relationship Satisfaction • Micro-expression Recognition Training tool • Better decoding of NEGATIVE facial expressions= ^ relational satisfaction • May be explained by decreasing conflict management among those with good decoding of negative facial emotions Postural Congruence and nonverbal mimicry= intimacy Explanation for Mimicry • Nonconscious mimicry creates affiliation and affiliation an create nonconscious mimicry • This played an important part in human evolution • Important for group members to feel sense of psychological connection with each other • Individuals with tendency to mimic others establish this sense of connection and would therefore continue to be included in the group Developmental Aspects of Interactive Intimacy Behaviors • Mothers and infants synchronize facial expressiveness, gross body movements, and vocals • More synchrony in full term vs. pre-term infants, and more in 5 month vs. 3 month olds • 3-6 year old children converge to the speech rate and the response latency of an adult who interacted with them 3/31 Regulation Turn Taking Factions • 50% of all turns (floor changes- I stop talking, you start talking) that occur in conversations are smooth • a “smooth turn transition” occurs when the floor switches without a perceptible pause • these turn transitions occur in less than 250 ms Other primates use turn taking • Social animals that communicate Cognitive Multitasking • Floor switches are s fast, they are at or beyond the limit of human performance for response to a signal (pistol shot at start of race) • People MUST be anticipating and predicting the end of speaker’s turn • Listeners plan their utterances while still listening to the speaker Simultaneous talk- both speakers are making utterances at the same time (just making sounds) Simultaneous turns- when both participants claim the speaking turn at the same time (claim to the floor- Debate) • Simultaneous turns occur when 1. The listener attempts to take a turn in the absence of a turn yielding cue or 2. The speaker emits a turn yielding cue but continues to talk The Turn Taking System Speaker behaviors • Turn yielding cues- behaviors that speakers use to say “I’m done” “take over” o Changing in intonation (drop/rise) o Sociocentric sequence- phrase pulling for response- “Ya know” o Drawl- prolonging last syllable- “sooo…” o Termination of gestures o Drop in loudness o Completion of grammatical clause • Turn holding cues- let me keep going o Maintenance of active gaze- dominant behavior o Gaze initiation without a yielding cue o Gesture- I’m aware you want to take the floor, but give me a minute to finish Listener behaviors • Turn requesting cues o Backchannels o Speaker directed gaze o Audible inhalation o Forward Lean o Gesture- raising hand o A stutter start • Backchannels o Listeners participate in conversation vie backchannels (brief gestures vocals, head nods) I’m listening, I hear you, I’m following, I want to hear more etc. o Backchannels elicited in “gaze window” backchannels do not constitute a turn of claim to a turn o Backchannels are used to AVOID taking the floor o Backchannels are also elicited by 1. Sentence completions 2. Requests for clarification 3. Restatement Interruptions • To take the floor in the absence of turn yielding cues • Different from simultaneous speech • Attempted vs. successful interruptions • 1. loudness 2. change in loudness Response to Interruptions • People attempt to maintain the floor after an attempted interruption by increasing loudness • Success depends upon giving out the lowest number of turn yielding cues and the most turn requesting cues • Interruptions are commonly followed by interruptions Sex Differences in Interruptions • Men do not interrupt any more than women • Women do not get interrupted any more than men • There were more opposite sex interruptions than same sex. • Women smiled, agreed, nodded, and laughed more in response to interruption than men • This shows evidence of a greater attempt to facilitate the flow of conversation Status Perceptions and Interruption • People who interrupt are perceived as having higher status than people who are interrupted • People who get interrupted rated themselves as less influential • Interrupters, especially female, are perceived as less likable • Dilemma: interrupting produces perceptions of higher status but lower likability Different Types of Interruptions • Deep/intrusive interruptions are more aggressive; they threaten the territory of the speaker by means of topic- changing, floor-changing, or disagreement. • But sometimes people interrupt to express agreement with the speaker (supportive interruption) • Gnisi found that disagreeing interruptions were viewed POSITIVEY • Supportive interruptions viewed positively • Change subject interruptions were viewed negatively, especially when frequent • Same subject interruptions were not viewed as very noxious unless they were frequent • Patient satisfaction is negatively associated with intrusive interruptions but positively associated with supportive interruptions form physician