(II) A proton moves through a region of space where thereis a magnetic field B = (0.45i + 0.38j)T and an electricfield E = (3.0i - 4.2j) X 103V/m. At a given instant,the protons velocity is v = (6.0i + 3.0j - 5.0k) X 103m/s.Determine the components of the total force on theproton.
2. The Newspaper Industry 03/17/2016 ▯ The Contemporary Newspaper Industry ▯ ▯ Dailies vs. Weeklies ▯ Dailies: newspapers that are published on newsprint everyday, sometimes with the exception of Sunday Tend to not have competition from other printed dailies; most controlled by a few large firms LARGELY affected by the surge of internet news and the national mortgage crisis of 2008-2009. o Many declared bankruptcy and struggled to stay afloat ▯ Weeklies: newspapers that are published on newsprint once or twice a week Somewhat less buffeted by the challenges that dailies had experienced Succeeded in carving out topic or audience areas that newspapers have not been able to cover as easily—4 coverage topics stand out i. Neighborhoods within cities ii. Suburbs iii. Rural areas iv. Certain types of people: ethnic, racial, occupational, interest communities Alternative weekly: popular city paper written for a young, urban audience with an eye on political and cultural commentary (ex. Chicago Weekly) Shoppers: free, nondaily newspapers, typically aimed at people in particular neighborhoods who might stop at a local merchants and designed to deliver coupons and ads, through they may also carry some news or feature content ▯ ▯ *There is a HUGE variety between dailies and weeklies, esp. cultural, language, etc. ▯ ▯ Development of the “Modern” Look Headlines across columns Beats and departments becoming increasingly important inverted pyramid organizational hierarchy pictures (illustrations), later photos MASS circulation newspaper o more languages (immigrant papers); helped assimilation o supported mostly by ads and sold very cheap to gain popularity o sensationalist stories the era of the “Yellow Press” (the yellow kid cartoon stolen from Pulizter by Hearst) shows the hyper-competition and that they will use anything to get readers ▯ ▯ Concerns About Sensationalist Stories Rise of journalism and J-schools (U of Missouri and Columbia) o Created norms for journalism activities because newspapers were the front of democracy and many thought sensationalist stories would corrupt the people o “professionalized” journalism along with medicine ▯ ▯ Financing the Newspaper Business ▯ *Primarily generate revenues in 2 ways: 1. Advertising Freestanding inserts (FSIs): preprinted sheets that advertise particular products, services or retailers Advertisers evaluate purchases for space in newspapers buy the CPM (cost per thousand readers): the basic measurement of ad efficiency in all media; used to evaluate ho much space they will buy and for what price Firms worry about coming up with ad prices that can compete with radio, TV or local ads in national magazines “Advertising” in newspapers refers to 3 different areas a. Retail Advertising: persuades people to shop in the local outlets most important of the 3 areas Revenue from retails have dropped 50% from 2005 to 2011 Ex: ads from department stores, hospitals, car dealerships, restaurants, realtors, movie theaters b. Classified Advertising: short announcement for a product or service that is typically grouped with announcements for other products/services of the same kind Second most lucrative type of newspaper ads Revenues have plummeted due to online real estate, auto and general classified ad sites (cheap ones like Craiglist) c. National Advertising: ads placed by large national and multinational firms that do business in a newspaper’s geographic area Ex: Airline ads, political ads, movie ads Blurred line between national and retail ads sometimes National marketers provide co-op advertising money to retailers that carry their products Ex: Soup manufacturer might provide local supermarket with an allowance to purchase ads that highlight their soups 2. Circulation Presents another major revenue challenge for newspapers: a. Whether young people will stop reading printed newspapers because they are so heavily involved in electronic media b. Whether young people or anyone else will pay for digital newspapers in amounts that will allow news to survive as the printed version decreases c. If the amount of advertising they receive online is not enough to support staffs and professional journalists The dual dilemma facing the business: to keep drawing advertising and circulation profits from the declining print product while building digital products that are on track to replace print as the future of business ▯ ▯ Key Economic Trends: Strong revenue growth until ’95 (age of the Internet), then revenue CLIFF 2010: HUGE drop in physical circulation (recession) Revenue depletion for ads because print ads are drastically falling and digital ads are not increasing enough to make up for it o Digital ad revenues do continue to grow, however ▯ ▯ Production in the Newspaper Industry 1. Creating newspaper content Newspapers’ publishers are in charge of the entire company’s operation (financial issues, production issues, and editorial issues) Publisher sets an advertising-editorial ratio: determines the balance between the amount of space available for advertisements and the amount of space available for one editorial matter in one issue of a newspaper i. Typical daily newspaper has 60% ads and 40% content; weeklies have more advertising ii. News hole: the number of pages left over and available for editorial matter (based on the number of pages needed for advertisements); filled by the editor Managing editor coordinates the work of the sections (or departments) within the newspapers General assignment reporters cover a variety of topics within their department A substantial amount of stories come from wire services: organizations that, for a fee, supply newspapers with a continual stream of hard news and feature stories about international, national, and even state topics via high-speed telephone, cable and internet connections i. Syndicates: companies that sell soft news, editorial matter, cartoons and photos to newspapers for use After the deadline, copy editors read the stories from reporters, then edit for length, accuracy, grammar and write headlines to accompany those stories The difference between the online and offline reporting staff is blurring i. Emergence of blogs: a sort of diary or journal that may describe the events surrounding the coverage and that invites reader responses 2. The technology of publishing the paper Creating a news website that is 24/7 is requires information technology professionals because it is challenging and expensive Much of the printed product starts out as digital since reporters can go anywhere with a laptop and digital camera Key activity in the process is pagination: the ability to compose and display completed pages, with pictures and graphics, on screen Distribution in the Newspaper Industry News distribution: bringing the finished issue to the point of exhibition Determining where to market the newspaper o The location of consumers that major advertisers would like to reach o The location of present and future printing plants o The competition of other papers o The loyalty to the paper that people in different areas seem to have Distributors must distribute link to their paper’s digital stories to people who request email or Twitter updates, ensure the serving of ads to those user and run software that learns about users by getting them to register and by tracking their activities on the sites Exhibition in the Newspaper Industry Online news outlets: computers, smartphones and other devices wherever users can and want to access it Physical world: o Free weeklies: often placed in special boxes in stores or on streets with placards inviting people to take a copy o Weeklies and dallies that cost money: can be found in stores and coin-operated boxes and newsstands o Subscriptions: exhibition points is a home or office delivery Achieving total market coverage (TMC): reaching nearly all households in a newspaper’s market area o More competition now that there’s a nationwide decrease in the percentage of homes receiving newspapers o Direct mail firms: ad firms that mail ads directly to consumers’ homes o Marriage mail outfits: ad firms that specialize in delivering circular advertisements that might otherwise be inserts as FSI in newspapers; produce sheets and brochures from several advertisers that are bundled together ▯ A Key Industry Issue: Building Readership ▯ *Built print readership through the following: More attractive and colorful layouts Sections designed to attract crucial audiences Emphasizing localism *Built digital readership through the following: Podcasting: ability to download audio recordings directly to MP3 players RSS feed: a flow of stories on topics the reader has chosen that the newspaper sends to the individual’s computer so that the user does not have to go to the paper’s website to see it Mobile feed: stories specifically formatted for the user’s smart phone or tablets ▯ ▯ Why did the newspaper stop being dominant 1. Suburbanization = reduced circulation for local papers 2. Television 3. The Internet ▯ Why the problem may remain: 1. Due to the Internet, newspapers will no longer have monopolies for ads in their areas (ex. local ads are now Google, Yelp, Yahoo!, and Groupon) 2. Online competition is so strong that CPM’s are much lower for digital ads than print ads 3. Paywalls won’t solve the problem because you can find content on multiple sites for free 4. Video ads may help a bit ▯ ▯ Journalism To provide citizens with info they need to be free and self-governing o Educate citizens and raise public awareness of current issues Gatekeeping: there will always be some selector of content o Can sometimes stop the job journalists want to do or encourage them to do their job Why should we care if journalism goes downhill o Link between journalism and democracy o “journalism is the first draft of history” o most explicit recount of what is happening A new perspective: networked journalism o Professionals and amateurs to work together to get the real story o Linking to each other across brands and old boundaries to share facts, questions, answers, ideas, perspectives… Propublica and NYT o Examples: Commercial news sharing Private-public partnerships Public and noncommercial media University news partnerships Legacy/hyperlocal (eg. Patch); collabs ▯ ▯ Key Terms: ▯ Editor: the executive in charge of all the operations required to fill the news hole ▯ Beats: a specific, long-term assignment that covers a single topic area (ex: college athletics in the sports department) ▯ 24/7: around-the-clock news organizations that constantly update stories and present new ones ▯ paywall: a barrier that prevents people from accessing digital material without first paying money