What two properties, one structural and one functional, distinguish heterochromatin from euchromatin?
Exam 3 Notes March 29 Romantic Period • In music, this period takes us from Beethoven to the 20th Century • “romanticized” version of classic forms of music • The Civil War begins in this era, industrial revolution also begins • Rise of nationalism in music—when you take pride in the music of your country • the age of program music—the music from this era that goes along with a literary piece. Ex: “Morning Mood” was written for Peer Gynt • Literary inﬂuences: Hugo—Les Miserable • • Dickens—Great Expectations, Christmas Carol • Wordsworth—poet • Tennyson—poet, half a league • all were beginning to write about social expectations/injustice • Dickens wrote a Christmas Carol and it saved his literary career • Philosophy inﬂuences • Darwin—evolution • Marx—marxism, communism • Hegel • Nietzsche people are starting to insert their own ideas • • Inﬂuences in Western History in General (one of the most tragic time in history • Expansionism • Nationalism • Napoleonic empire • Revolutionary movements (capital labor) • Civil War • Industry and commerce • We took the people who the country belonged to and made them into slaves. If any other country did that we would be considered low lives • Architectural inﬂuences Theaters • • Opera houses • Colleges (Samford hall, Langdon both reﬂect this era) • Revival of Greek and Goth style • Historical and national eclecticism • We now see composers make a living off music. They no longer have ties to the church/ monarchy. Some still have patrons, but now you have the option to make money off the work you make March 31 • “Romanticism is a philosophical movement part of the Enlightenment that emphasizes self awareness”; music, art and writing were the big 3 in this period • This was a time where musicians were no longer tethered to the monarchs. From Beethoven on, they could do something they never could—do things for themselves and their career • The composers tried to make society a better place Jonathon Swift: “A Modest Proposal,” he said he observed there is a number of orphaned • children and a lot of people starving so here was his proposal: eat the children and it would solve both problems! This was him pointing his ﬁnger at society. 20 years earlier he would have been exiled by now that the American and French revolution has happened, people are becoming aware of what they can do for society. • This was a time when people interacted more freely with their surroundings Primary forms (types of music) • Vocal: • oratorio—The Messiah • mass—sacred opera—very dramatic and theatrical • • art song—song that tells a story, a ballad (secular • Instrumental: • fantasy and program pieces—pieces for orchestra that also represent or help tell a story; ex. Peer Gynt • symphonic poem—poetry in music • dances • sonatas • concertos • overtures—typically you hear this before an opera. It is music before the main show, kind of like an overview of all the music that will be played throughout the opera or concert Romantic composers • This is known as the “golden age” of music • Felix Mendelssohn • wrote “Wedding March,” played at the end of the wedding. He loved program music. This march was originally written for Midsummer Nights Dream. He was Jewish although he was not a practicing one but he was just Jewish enough that his music was banned during WWII. America saw what was happening and started holding concerts for him in New York. He is responsible for people studying Bach because he found all his music. • Richard Wagner • German. He was Hitler’s idol as a musician. As a young man he was part of a group that became the Nazis. Because of this he was forced to go into exile. He believed the German race was smarter than anyone else. he came up with the design of a modern concert hall/ opera house and theatrical lighting. He wrote “The bridal march.” He increased the size of the Opera by half, so that is why they had to sing so loud • Frederic Chopin (show pan) • Polish. He is synonymous to piano music. He loved teaching but piano was his thing. he wrote the “Funeral march” which was a sonata. By the romantic period the pianos look like what we have as a grand piano. He died in Paris of tuberculosis. He quit composing when his relationship ended • Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky • Russian. Now we hear from composers all over the world. He studied law because his father didn’t want him to become a musician. He was extremely tortured because of his homosexuality and had numerous suicide attempts. He probably died from one of his attempts. When he jumped into the river, he probably drank some and developed cholera which comes form contaminated water. He was supported by Madame Von Meck (his patron). He wrote Swan Lake, Nutcracker. He was a personal friend of Nicholas. He performed at the premier at Carnegie Hall for $25,000 in 1891. He wrote a piece when the Russians defeated Napoleon, an overture and in it he shows peasant life in Russia, some fragments from the French and Russian anthems and he wrote this piece to be performed outside