Two pea plants heterozygous for the characters of pod color and pod shape are crossed. Draw a Punnett square to determine the phenotypic nltios ofthe offspring.
Abnormal Psychology – PTSD 2/23 Post-Traumatic Stress disorder: Diagnosis Being exposed to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence. You could develop PTSD after directly experiencing the event, witnessing an event happen right in front of you, learning about a violent or accidental event that happened to a person that you have a close relationship with, or experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to details of an event (For example: a police officer that hears about violent, brutal crimes daily). There are 4 categories of PTSD symptoms, most of which are recurrent. ▬ Intrusion symptoms – unwanted experiences and thoughts people have that are related to the event. Flashbacks and nightmares are both examples of intrusion symptoms. ▬ Avoidance symptoms – when you try to avoid any reminders of the event. For example, you might avoid certain places, people, thoughts, memories, events, etc. because they remind you of the traumatic event. ▬ Negative cognitions and mood – when you feel detached and not as close to people anymore. Inability to form close relationships. ▬ Arousal/reactivity symptoms – hypervigilance. When someone becomes extremely aware and alert when a minor thing triggers them and reminds them of their trauma. You cannot use the same symptom for PTSD and another disorder. This means that you cannot use one symptom to go towards 2 different disorders. You must have symptoms for at least one month to receive a diagnosis. PTSD: Epidemiology Prevalence – 6.8% of the population will have PTSD at some point Sex difference – Men are more likely to be exposed to a traumatic event, but women are more likely to be diagnosed. The ratio is 3 women to every 1 man. Age of onset – Any age. This depends on what age the traumatic event occurs. Usually get diagnosed around 3 months after the traumatic event. PTSD: Risk factors Family history of a psychiatric disorder can put someone at a greater risk. (Living with family members with psychiatric disorders can make one’s life more chaotic than it would normally be.) High extraversion and neuroticism Having conduct problems in childhood Occupation Having less than a college education PTSD: Biological Dependent vs independent stressful life events Genetics and personality can influence how many risky behaviors someone partakes in Abnormal Psychology – PTSD 2/23 Serotonin gene, trauma exposure, and low social support mixed together makes you more at risk for PTSD. Having social support puts you less at risk. The structure of someone’s hippocampus can somewhat lead to PTSD. You are more at risk to develop PTSD after a traumatic event if you have a small hippocampus. PTSD: Psychological A disorder of “non-recovery”. This means that symptoms are continius after a 1 month period. Given exposure to trauma, the risk for PTSD depends on: ▬ The nature of the stressor ▬ Your neuroticism ▬ Preexisting problems with depression and anxiety ▬ Appraisals people make of their own stress symptoms. (How you interoperate the event) ▬ Having low levels of social support PTSD: Sociocultural Race/ethnicity – white individuals are more likely to be exposed to trauma. Black individuals are more likely to have PTSD. Factors related to your adjustment to combat: ▬ Justification for the combat (Does the person believe the action was justified) ▬ Identification with the combat unit ▬ Quality of leadership ▬ Returning to negative and unsupportive social environment could raise the risk for PTSD PTSD: Prevention and treatment Advanced preparation – training people for what they might expect and how to deal with the stress Crisis intervention – sending a team of crisis workers to debrief people. (This usually happens right after a mass trauma/natural disaster) Medications – Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors aren’t the best way to treat PTSD, but they could potentially be helpful. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy ▬ Prolonged exposure therapy – Trying to break the cycle of negative thoughts and avoidance. This therapy makes the individual expose themselves to the feelings in a safe, controlled environment. Amount of exposure needed to help varies. This treatment is very difficult to go through, but it has been proven to be very effective. ▬ Cognitive restructuring – trying to get rid of people’s self-blame about a situation. This helps people to change thoughts and think about them in a more realistic, valid, and positive way.