A long conducting rod of rectangular cross section (20 mm 30 mm) and thermal conductivity k 20 W/m K experiences uniform heat generation at a rate q . 5 107 W/m3 , while its surfaces are maintained at 300 K. (a) Using a finite-difference method with a grid spacing of 5 mm, determine the temperature distribution in the rod. (b) With the boundary conditions unchanged, what heat generation rate will cause the midpoint temperature to reach 600 K?
4/5 WWII: Japanese Americans Japanese Internment camps o Men, women, children Federal Gov. decided this Why They thought they were spies for the Japanese government Matter of national security Weren’t given a trial or accused of a crime Didn’t lock up Germans and Italians Why o There were more of them in origin o How far back can you go Why Japanese o They look different o It’s easier to accuse them as the ‘other’ than it is to accuse someone who was German or Italian o Not the same as concentration camps o Outdoor prisons o Tried to make the best of it Set up schools, tried to keep up with their customs People lost property, status, and, lives o Violated the bill of rights o Several Japanese Americans sued: Karamatsu v. US 1944 SC ruled that in war times the power of fed gov expands and they can take measures they wouldn’t be able to during peace times (it’s okay to violate personal rights under this if it’s determined someone’s a threat to national security) o Japanese Americans stayed until end of WWII o Some Japanese men were allowed to leave if they fought for the US in WWII One of the most decorated battalion o Most stay for the rest of the war WWII Summer 1940 - Summer 1944 wasn’t an army in mainland Europe to stop Hitler until D-Day (June 1944) VE (victory in Europe) Day (Apr. 1945) o Hitler killed himself in his bunker, Mussolini was hanged with his own testicles in his mouth by his people o First that most Americans knew the extent of the Holocaust Challenges left in defeating Japan o Japan expanded and had lots of tiny islands (volcanic islands) in the Pacific o Islands were too small to land on the beach plus they’d have to scale the side of a volcano (they’d have to go through and do this to each island) o The Japanese code didn’t allow surrender Roosevelt was secretly planning a nuclear weapon project: Manhattan Project o Overseen by Robert Oppenheimer o Sought refuge from Germany o Idea to build them came from Germany o Hitler started to build nuclear weapons o But he ran the top minds off o top minds went to US o a lot of the construction took place in a plant in TN (Oak Ridge) because it’s hidden, secretive, near water, electricity, railways, and sits in a natural bowl/valley o most people working their had no clue what they were building (only knew it was top secret and only figured it out towards the end of it) o Roosevelt’s VP has no clue this was happening (it was above his security clearance) o May 1945: Roosevelt died VP/current President: Harry S. Truman was put in a very difficult position Just now informed about Manhattan Project Now has 2 bombs at his disposal and has to decide if he’ll drop them on Japan In Favor of Dropping: all of the little islands didn’t have to be cleared and it could save lots of American lives an action that would intimidate the Soviet Union and everyone else (powerful statement from the US: that it was building strength as an economy and military) saves time and money using it would cost a lot of lives, but so would a regular invasion so in the long run it might save Japanese civilian lives Against Dropping: There wasn’t just one small area where Japanese soldiers were so it would have to be dropped on a city (intentionally killing civilians) The area is radioactive (the long term effects of radiation were unknown at this point) Lots of ‘if’ questions o What if they retaliate (increase devotion to resisting) o What if the bombs don’t work and Japan doesn’t surrender o What if one’s dropped in the bay of Tokyo to scare them and get them to surrender that way (what if they don’t surrender) Unanswerable before the event To save American lives Truman gave the go ahead August 1945 Hiroshima was bombed Entire city was leveled Lots of lives lost (around 50,000) (citizens) How most people died: o In immediate blast radius was evaporated by heat o Outside that by the shockwaves Few days pass, they ask for surrender, Japan says no Nagasaki was bombed Both towns picked because they were industrial areas Japan surrendered VJ (victory against Japan) Day Atomic Age Meant mankind had access to a power that could lead to humanities destruction Puts lots of responsibility in the hands of humans Killing became easier and done in a much larger scale Peace times after WWII Strongest US econ ever was Over 50% of Americans were middle class Unease between the US and Soviet Union Feb 1945: meeting between Britain, Soviet Union, and US leaders in the Yalta Conference o Churchill (Britain), Roosevelt (US), Stalin (Soviet Union) o the United Nations built from the ashes of League of Nations global forum for peace and working out international misunderstandings has a peace keeping force both a defense force and diplomacy forum (this is all they agree on) o Stalin was angry towards Germany because Hitler betrayed him Wanted to ensure that Germany could never be a major power Wanted to ruin the econ, strip them of their lands, break Germany up Sounds like the outcome of WWI (this is what France and Britain wanted towards Germany and started all of this) o Churchill and Roosevelt were worried it would bring someone worse than Hitler to the forefront o In the meantime decided that Germany would be occupied in zones of occupation Zones of occupation: the main 3 (plus France) would occupy Germany so it would be divided in half (West by Britain, US, and France) (East by Soviet Union) Within Eastern Germany there was the capital Berlin Berlin was divided the same way o West: Britain, US, and France o East: Soviet Union o Stalin wanted this permanent o Everyone else wants to get rid of this o Follow up meeting was supposed to be later that year (Roosevelt was dead and Churchill was no longer in office) in July o We had two untested, new leaders, and Stalin railroaded them Tried to reunite Germany Stalin ended up getting his way Stalin (1946 - 1948) gets comfortable with Germany being separated and started to move the Soviet military into these nations and helped lead communist revolutions (both openly and in secret) Puppet government: someone’s in power but there’s a puppet master behind the scenes controlling everything (Stalin works behind the scenes) Iron Curtain: once free countries are now a part of the Soviet block With expansion of Soviet Union the US was worried about spread of communism American wanted to spread democracy, USSR wanted to spread communism Grand Strategy: Containment o US wanted to contain it and that eventually it will fail and everyone will return to democracy (hopefully) but we need to keep it from spreading How to do this o Truman Doctrine Give money and military aid to any nation (people) fighting communism (Turkey and Greece have a war, the US gives advice/material to the anti-communist party to help them along) Ex: Marshall Plan (1947) US sends lots of aid (money), no strings attached, to every country in Europe to prevent a bad global economy (so they don’t have another Great Depression), convince them that capitalism does work so they don’t become desperate and go to capitalism (largely successful) Everyone got money but Spain (stayed out of the war), Switzerland (they were neutral), lots of places in Eastern Europe (everyone behind the Iron Curtain; they were offered it but Stalin wouldn’t allow it since he saw it as a kind of bribe) Helps rebuild European economy (shipped food, money, supplies, etc.) Cold War (1949 - 1989) ‘49 was when Soviet Union tested nuclear weapons US wanted to prevent more bombings Baruch Plan o Worried about nuclear weapons being in the wrong hands o They (US) want no one else to use them other than US o This doesn’t pass US and Soviet Union aren’t on good terms Cold because the US and Soviet Union weren’t actual fighting o War never breaks out between the two of them o We see lots of proxy wars Proxy war: a stand in; the US and Soviet Union won’t meet directly in battle since both sides are worried the other will nuc them which will lead to mutually assured destruction (MAD) (both sides would be destroyed) Countries loyal to US or USSR are fighting in their place Scary part of this war o There’s the threat of nuclear warfare 4/7 (Strawberry Statement Notes: you have to talk about all 3 enemies in the Strawberry Statement even though you only need to pick and prove why they’re the most significant. For the other two, just explain why they weren’t as significant) Chinese Civil War (1949) (Proxy War) Originally an ally of the US (and major trading partner) but faced Mao Zedong and his communist party threatened to overturn the government (Chinese) Chiang Kai-Shek (Nationalist) Soviet Unioin is secretly training Mao’s men (providing money and weapons) while the US does the same for Chiang Kai-Shek Both US and Soviet Union are both secretly involved Mao’s men win and China becomes communist o Major blow to containment Korea Occupied in half (US had South and Soviet’s had North by end of WWII) Wasn’t intended to be permanent United Nations wanted to reunite the two but neither the US or Soviet Union wanted to pull out o Why They didn’t want the other side to win and spread ideals (communism, democracy) Technically leave (US and Soviet) leaves in ’49 but both keep a hand in what’s going on (puppet gov) Korean War (1950 - 1954) (Proxy War) Summer ’50 the North invaded South Korea Initially successful US intervened via peace keeping force (UN) o Helped push back the North Koreans o But while counterattacking China warns US and UN not to invade North Korea or else they’d get involved Stalemate after last few years of the war Not much really changed from start to finish Considered a defeat by US military (since it was a stalemate) Leads to mistrust, fear, paranoia, and anxiety in the US Sputnik First manmade satellite that made it to space (made by Soviet Union) Election of 1948 Harry Truman (D) o Not really popular o Difficult to follow up FDR o Inspired parts of his own party to rebel against him o In ’48 he proposed a bill that desegregated the US military o Seemed to have been changing (in the eyes of traditional democrats) AA were brought in via Truman and his wife o Sees this party as fighting to for AA civil rights Thomas Dewey (R) o Heavily favored Strom Thurmond (States’ Rights Democrats ‘Dixiecrats’) o Basically the old version of the democratic party Avoided civil rights all together Significances: o Discontent from white southerners due to the influx of AA’s to the democratic party o Truman ended up winning Truman’s Second Term Domestically famous for the second Red Scare o (WWI was when the first RS occurred: Bolshevik Rev.) 2ndRed Scare (1946 - 1954) right after WWII the HUAC was formed in the House of Rep. o made to root out communists in the US o fearing that there were Soviet communists in the US o anyone “suspected” of communism was dragged before HUAC and were interrogated about political believes o What happens if you’re American, accused of communism, and brought before HUAC (and on TV) even if you’re proven innocent You’re ruined (you’re tainted with the label ‘communist’ even if you’re not) o Started in Hollywood by going after artists and actors (in ’47) Like Reagan, Charlie Chaplin, and Disney Afraid of subliminal messages Expands to directors, musicians, writers, etc. o A lot of them were hostile when interrogate Only “confirmed” to public that they’re actually communists o ‘Blacklisting’ people suspected of communists beliefs would no longer be hired o ‘Screen Actor’s Guild’ (SAG) a group of screen actors that are grouped together as a union union for professional film actors most parts in Hollywood (then and now) are for people in SAG made it a point to blacklist suspected communists o a lot of these people had their careers ruined o a backlash against people who were suspected of communism o height of it happened in ’50 when Joe McCarthy came along Joseph McCarthy: “McCarthyism” o A witch hunt for communists o Most devoted communist seeker o New from Wisconsin (senator) and quickly caught their attention when he said he had a list of known communists working in the federal government Convinced American public that he alone could bring “secret communists” to justice Rounded up random people, dragged them in front of HUAC, and harassed them (rude towards them, interrupted them, talked over them, didn’t like them defend themselves) People respond positively to this Essentially did what Hitler did (scapegoating) Only he blamed everything on communists o Arthur Miller Spoke out against him via ‘The Crucible” A play about the Salem Witch Trials during 1690s (on the surface), but really the subject matter is McCarthy and his witch hunts (allegorically) o 1954 the public had enough of McCarthy and his craziness Senate officially condemned him and his tactics in ‘54 Long 1950s Starts 1946 - 1963 Much of the baby boom Period of conservative consensus o Conservative in values, morals, behavior, apparel o Everything was nice and neat, everyone lived in the suburbs and were middle class o Nuclear family: Husband, wife, 2.5 kids Close knit, immediate family Different from great depression (there were bigger households: aunt, uncle, grandparents, etc.) o Ultimately a source of anxiety (mostly for women) TV showed them how different their family was They could fix this by buying things