An electron, a proton, and an alpha particle each have a kinetic energy of Find (a) the magnitudes of their momenta and (b) their de Broglie wavelengths.
Accounting 210: Chapter 11 Notes Standard Costs and Balanced Scorecard - Describe Standard Costs: o Distinguishing Between Standards and Budgets o Both standards and budgets are predetermined costs, and both contribute to management planning and control. o There is a difference: ▯ A standard is a unit amount. ▯ A budget is a total amount o Advantages: - Setting Standard Costs: o Setting standard costs requires input from all persons who have responsibility for costs and quantities. o Standards should change whenever managers determine that the existing standard is not a good measure of performance. o IDEAL VERSUS NORMAL STANDARDS: ▯ Companies set standards at one of two levels: ▯ Ideal standards represent optimum levels of performance under perfect operating conditions. ▯ Normal standards represent efficient levels of performance that are attainable under expected operating conditions. ▯ Properly set, normal standards should be rigorous but attainable. o Case Study: To establish the standard cost of producing a product, it is necessary to establish standards for each manufacturing cost element— ▯ direct materials, ▯ direct labor, and ▯ manufacturing overhead. • The standard for each element is derived from the standard price to be paid and the standard quantity to be used. o Direct Materials: ▯ The direct materials price standard is the cost per unit of direct materials that should be incurred. ▯ The direct materials quantity standard is the quantity of direct materials that should be used per unit of finished goods. o Question: The direct materials price standard should include an amount for all of the following except: ▯ a.receiving costs. ▯ b.storing costs. ▯ c.handling costs. ▯ d.normal spoilage costs. - Setting Standard Costs and Spoilage: o When spoilage or waste is part of the process, you must account for this in determining the standard cost. o This can be presented in 2 ways: o 1. Sometimes they look at it from a planning perspective Pounds of material needed3.5 Allowance for Waste .4 Allowance for spoilage .1▯ Total pounds 4.0 for standard o 2. Sometimes they look at it with a percentage of waste that is planned into the system. You need 3.5 lbs. as your final product and you have 12.5% waste. So standard pounds * (1-.125) = 3.5 lbs needed ▯ This would lead to the standard of 4.0 lbs - Setting Standard Costs: o Direct Labor: ▯ The direct labor price standard is the rate per hour that should be incurred for direct labor. ▯ The direct labor quantity standard is the time that should be required to make one unit of the product. o Manufacturing Overhead: ▯ For manufacturing overhead, companies use a standard predetermined overhead rate in setting the standard. ▯ This overhead rate is determined by dividing budgeted overhead costs by an expected standard activity index, such as standard direct labor hours or standard machine hours. ▯ The company expects to produce 13,200 gallons during the year at normal capacity. It takes 2 direct labor hours for each gallon. o Total Standard Cost Per Unit: ▯ The total standard cost per unit is the sum of the standard costs of direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead. o DO IT! Ridette Inc. accumulated the following standard cost data concerning product Cty31. Materials per unit: 1.5 pounds at $4 per pound. Labor per unit: 0.25 hours at $13 per hour. Manufacturing overhead: Predetermined rate is 120% of direct labor cost. Compute the standard cost of one unit of product Cty31. - Determine Direct Materials Variances: - Analyzing and Reporting Variances: o Variances are the differences between total actual costs and total standard costs. ▯ Actual costs < Standard costs = _______________ variance. ▯ Actual costs > Standard costs = _______________ variance. o Variance must be analyzed to determine the underlying factors. o Analyzing variances begins by determining the cost elements that comprise the variance. o Direct Materials Variances: ▯ In completing the order for 1,000 gallons of Xonic Tonic, Xonic used 4,200 pounds of direct materials. These were purchased at a cost of $3.10 per unit. Standard price is $3. • (Actual Quantity x Actual Price) – (Standard Quantity x Standard Price) = Total Materials Variance • (4,200 x $3.10 = $13,020) – (4,000 x $3.00 = $12,000)= $1,020 U ▯ Next, the company analyzes the total variance to determine the amount attributable to price (costs) and to quantity (use). The materials price variance is computed from the following formula: • (Actual Quantity x Actual Price) – (Actual Quantity x Standard Price) = Materials Price Variance • (4,200 x $3.10 = $13,020) – (4,200 x $3.00= $12,600) = $420 U ▯ The materials quantity variance is determined from the following formula. • (Actual Quantity x Standard Price) – (Standard Quantity x Standard Price) = Materials Quantity Varaince • (4,200 x $3.00= $12,600) – (4,000 x $3.00= $12,00) = $600 U o Causes of Materials Variances: ▯ Materials price variance – factors that affect the price paid for raw materials include the • availability of quantity and cash discounts • quality of the materials requested • delivery method used. ▯ To the extent that these factors are considered in setting the price standard, the purchasing department is responsible. ▯ Materials quantity variance – if the variance is due to inexperienced workers, faulty machinery, or carelessness, the production department is responsible. o DO IT! The standard cost of Wonder Walkers includes two units of direct materials at $8.00 per unit. During July, the company buys 22,000 units of direct materials at $7.50 and uses those materials to produce 10,000 units. Compute the total, price, and quantity variances for materials. - Determine Direct Labor and Manufacturing Overhead Variances: - Direct Labor Variances: o In completing the Xonic Tonic order, Xonic incurred 2,100 direct labor hours at an average hourly rate of $14.80. The standard hours allowed for the units produced were 2,000 hours (1,000 gallons x 2 hours). The standard labor rate was $15 per hour. The total labor variance is computed as follows. o Next, the company analyzes the total variance to determine the amount attributable to price (costs) and to quantity (use). The labor price variance is computed from the following formula. o The labor quantity variance is determined from the following formula. o Causes of Labor Variances: ▯ Labor price variance – usually results from two factors: • 1. paying workers different wages than expected, and • 2. misallocation of workers. ▯ When workers are not unionized, the manager who authorized the wage increase is responsible for the higher wages. ▯ Production department generally is responsible for labor price variances resulting from misallocation of the workforce. ▯ Labor quantity variances • Relates to the efficiency of workers. • The cause of a quantity variance generally can be traced to the production department. o Manufacturing Overhead Variances: ▯ Total overhead variance is the difference between actual overhead costs and overhead costs applied to work done. The computation of the actual overhead is comprised of a variable and a fixed component. ▯ The formula for the total overhead variance and the calculation for Xonic, Inc. for the month of June. ▯ Standard hours allowed are the hours that should have been worked for the units produced. o The overhead variance is generally analyzed through a price variance and a quantity variance. o ____________________________(price variance) shows whether overhead costs are effectively controlled. o ____________________________(quantity variance) relates to whether fixed costs were under- or over-applied during the year. o Causes of Manufacturing Overhead Variances: ▯ Over- or underspending on overhead items such as indirect labor, electricity, etc. ▯ Poor maintenance on machines. ▯ Flow of materials through the production process is impeded because of a lack of skilled labor to perform the necessary production tasks, due to a lack of planning. ▯ Lack of sales orders o DO IT! The standard cost of Product YY includes 3 hours of direct labor at $12.00 per hour. The predetermined overhead rate is $20.00 per direct labor hour. During July, the company incurred 3,500 hours of direct labor at an average rate of $12.40 per hour and $71,300 of manufacturing overhead costs. It produced 1,200 units. (a) Compute the total, price, and quantity variances for labor. (b) Compute the total overhead variance. - Prepare Variance Reports and Balanced Scorecards: - Reporting Variances o All variances should be reported to appropriate levels of management as soon as possible. o The form, content, and frequency of variance reports vary considerably among companies. o Facilitate the principle of “management by exception.” o Top management normally looks for _________________. o Materials price variance report for Xonic, Inc., with the materials for the Xonic Tonic order listed first. - Statement Presentation of Variances: o In income statements prepared for management under a standard cost accounting system, cost of goods sold is stated at standard cost and the variances are disclosed separately. - Balanced Scorecard: o The balanced scorecard incorporates financial and nonfinancial measures in an integrated system that links performance measurement and a company’s strategic goals. o The balanced scorecard evaluates company performance from a series of “perspectives.” The four most commonly employed perspectives are as follows. o Question: Which of the following would not be an objective used in the customer perspective of the balanced scorecard approach ▯ a. Percentage of customers who would recommend product to a friend. ▯ b. Customer retention. ▯ c. Brand recognition. ▯ d. Earning per share. o In summary, the balanced scorecard does the following: 1.Employs both __________ and _________________ measures. 2.Creates linkages so that high-level corporate goals can be communicated all the way down to the shop floor. 3.Provides _________________ ____________for such nonfinancial measures such as product quality, rather than vague statements such as “We would like to improve quality.” 4.Integrates all of the company’s goals into a single performance measurement system, so that an inappropriate amount of weight will not be placed on any single goal.