Drawing a shows a displacement vector (450.0 m along the y axis). In this x, y coordinate system the scalar components are Ax 0 m and Ay 450.0 m. Suppose that the coordinate system is rotated counterclockwise by 35.0, but the magnitude (450.0 m) and direction of vector remain unchanged, as in drawing b. What are the scalar components, Ax and Ay, of the vector in the rotated x, y coordinate system? (a) Ax 369 m and Ay 258 m (b) Ax 369 m and Ay 258 m (c) Ax 258 m and Ay 369 m (d) Ax 258 m and Ay 369 m (e) Ax 258 m and Ay 369 m A B A

• 18.1 the Ray model of light Ignores diﬀraction Light ray is a line in direction along which light energy is ﬂowing ‣ Not a physical entity or thing ‣ Travel in straight lines ‣ Can cross over each other ‣ Travels forever unless it interacts with matter ‣ Object is a source of light rays ‣ Eye sees by focusing a bundle of rays ‣ Applicable if size of objects or openings is much greater than the wavelength >1mm ‣ within a material, light can be scattered or absorbed ‣ At an interference between two materials, light can be reﬂected, refracted or both The propagation of light ‣ If we block the paths where light arrives completely out of ph