A battery has an internal resistance of 0.012 and an emf of 9.00 V. What is the maximum current that can be drawn from the battery without the terminal voltage dropping below 8.90 V?
Conﬂict Can't we all just get along • Israel and palestine Deﬁning conﬂict • Conﬂict ◦ Incompatible goals ◦ Actual or perceived ◦ Two or more ppl Every person for him or herself • Black Friday violence • In 2008 worker dies at long island walmart after being trampled • 7 deaths, 98 injuries since 2006 Social dilemma: an example • Social dilemma - a conﬂict in which the most beneﬁcial action for an individual, will, if chosen by most ppl have harmful effects on everyone • The prisoner's dilemma ◦ Y0u and another person have committed a crime ◦ The DA wants more evidence, offers you each a deal ◦ Confess to crime - give DA more info about crime to use to prosecute case • Both confess - 5 years in jail ◦ Refuse to confess • You confess and partner doesn’t - you go free partner goes 10 years ▪ Vice versa • Both refuse to confess - 1 year The tragedy of the commons • 100 farmers live in a community surounding a commons capable of sustaining 100 cows. When each grazes one cow, the common feeding gorup is optimally used. If someoen puts a 2nd cow in the ﬁeld, they will double their output, minus the mere 1% overgrazing. If too many ppl put a second cow in the commons, the commons can't replenish itself and the result is a mud ﬁeld • The "commons" is any shared resource • When individuals consume more than their share, the cost is dispersed among all • If too many ppl use more than their share the results is the tragedy of the commons • Ex ◦ Gasoline consumption ◦ Water consumption ◦ Insurance fraud Which of the following is not a way to resolve social dilemmas Competition, changing the payoffs, appealing to altruistic norms, regulations Competition Solving social dilemmas • Regulations (mandatory taxes EPA) • Limit group size/create smaller communities • Increase communication (arms race) • Change the payoffs (carpool lanes) • Altruistic norms encouraging cooperation Perceptions of injustice • Perceptions of injustice = conﬂict • Judgements of fairness, deserving ◦ Affect feelings, attitudes, behavior • Justice concerns ◦ Procedural justice - concern for process of how decisions are made • "we don't think it's fair to take someone's race/gender into account when making college admission" ◦ Distributive justice - concern for regardless of process ppl use, what does the allocation of people using resources • "if we only focus on gpa or sat, may lead to an outcome of higher race" ◦ These two are used to understand ppl's reactions to afﬁrmative action policy (designed to increase presence of underrepresented groups) Equity exists when rewards are distributed in proportion to indivudal's contribution What is just • Equality ◦ My outcome = your outcome • Equity ◦ My outcome = your outcome ◦ My inputs = your inputs de•eN ◦ Different principles in different situations Misperceptions • Mirror image perceptions: reciprocal views of another often help by parties in conﬂict ◦ "we're moral and peace loving, you're evil and aggressive" • False polarization - the perception that each side in a conﬂict has more extreme views than they actually do ◦ Robinson 1995 • People's perceptions in abortion debate • Prolife and pro choice students asked to read stories about women who had abortions • They made 3 ratings ▪ How much sympathy do you feel for woman • Pro choice were above 6 pro life were around 4 ▪ How much symapthy would the "typical pro choice" student feel • Thought pro life were less and pro choice were more ▪ Same thing but "typical pro life" • Same predictions Peacemaking • Bargaining - seeking an agreement to a conﬂict thorugh direct negotiation bt parties ◦ Trust important • Serotonin and oxytocin play roles • Reactive devaluation - reduced attractiveness of an offer from an opposing side just bc the other side made it ◦ Maoz 2002 • 116 israelis rated an israeli-authored peace plan • Plan described as written by israelis or palestinians (was actuals israeli) • Rate how good for israelis and how good for palestinians ▪ Better for ingroup When bargaining fails • Mediation - an attempt by a neutral third part to resolve a conﬂict by facilitating communication and offer suggestions ◦ Couple goes to marriage counselor ◦ Turning win-lose into win-win ◦ Unraveling misperceptions When mediation fails • Arbitration: resolution of a conﬂict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement ◦ Arbitrator may choose compromise ◦ Final offer arbitration - arbitrator chooses one of the two ﬁnals offers Wrapping up • Social dilemmas • Misperceptions ◦ Mirror image perceptions ◦ False polarization • Conﬂict resolution