a. What is catenation? b. How does catenation contribute to the diversity of organic compounds?
Biology 1030 Exam 3 Study Guide (Folkerts) Kingdom Fungi v Characteristics • Heterotrophic: they don’t make their own food • Go through zygotic meiosis • Have cell walls made of chitin • Separate/nonseperate hyphae: thread like v Phylum Chytridiomycota • Aquatic fungi that have flagellated zoo spores • These are the only ones with flagellated spores • Harmful to amphibians • Moats ancient/Plesiomorphic v Phylum Zygomycota • Produce sporangia • The fuzzy white stuff that develops on food (bread molds, sugar molds) • Thick walled v Phylum Ascomycota • The sac fungi contain ascus - Ascus: a sack of sexually produced spores (sexual spores) - Conidia: asexual spores • Penicillum hotatum: the source of penicillin • Tolypoclaium inflatum: the source of immunosuppressant cyclosporine • Yeast: single celled and capable of budding • Urgetesum: LSD v Phylum Glomeromycota • Grows inside of higher plants v Phylum Basidiomycota • Includes mushrooms and toadstools • Hoasexual spores or gametangia • Sexual spores: basidiospores - The production of these is the only thing that happens in this phyla • Lichens: composite organisms, has 3 types: - Crustose: looks like dry chipped pain, and is the simplest growth form o Capable of photosynthesis (protobiont) o Capable of fungal functions (mycobiont) - Foliose: leaf like fungus that is above and below - Fruiticose: branch like • Imperfect fungi: has no known sexual stages - Aspergillus niger: black mold, a food contaminant - Trichophyton: athletes foot Biology 1030 Exam 3 Study Guide (Folkerts) Kingdom Animalia v Characteristics • Don’t have cell walls • Are multicellular • Have 3 types of births - Oviparous: laying an egg - Ovoviviparous: hold egg until hatching - Viviparous: giving birth • Heterotrophic • Ingestionàdigestionàegestion • Sexual/asexual reproduction (go through gametic meiosis) • If an organism is acoelomate, then it lacks a body cavity • 99% of this kingdom is invertebrae • Feeding structures include - Lophophore: a complex feeding structure - Trochophore: larval stages Phylum Porifera v Characteristics • Lack symmetry • Have a matrix made of mesophyll http://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl • Have 4 cell types - Choanocytes: help in filter feeding - Archaeocytes: play a role in food transport - Porocytes: holes of the sponge - Pinacocyte: flat cells covering outside/inside • Skeleton - Organic fibers: collagen, sponging - Inorganic spicules: calcareous, siliceous • Have 3 body types (pictured on the right) - Asconoid: one osculum - Syconoid: one osculum - Leucinoid: multiple oscula v Class Calcarea • Have spicules and are calcareous • Are marine and small Phylum Hexactinellida v Characteristics • “Glass sponges” • Are siliceous and deep water marine Biology 1030 Exam 3 Study Guide (Folkerts) • Have a fused layer of cells called a syncytium Phylu m Demospongiae v Characteristics • Have only leucon body types • These are marine and freshwater sponges • Have siliceous spicules/sponging Phylum Ctenophora v Characteristics • Have biridial symmetry • Have ctenes that help in movement and feeding • Diploblastic • Are transparent and bioluminescent • More than 200 species are known of today • Not strong swimmers and are mostly planktonic Phylum Radiata v Characteristics • Radial symmetry • Diploblastic • Have polyp and medusa forms Phylum Cnidaria v Characteristics • Contains jellyfish, corals, etc. • Very diverse v Class Hydrozoa • Have either polyp only or both polyp and medusa stages (medusa is dominant) • Have colonial polyps with polymorphism v Class Scyphozoa • “True jellyfish” • Medusa is the predominant stage • Upside down jellyfish: contains symbiotic algae that lives in the manubrium • Thimble and stalked jelly v Class Cubozoa • “Box jellyfish” • Chironex fleckeri (sea wasp) v Class Anthozoa • Polyp stage only, no medusa • Contain large polyps • Can have both sexual and asexual reproduction Biology 1030 Exam 3 Study Guide (Folkerts) Phylum Platyhelminthes v Characteristics • “Flat worms” • Triploblastic • Don’t have a body cavity • Protostome • They are flat so that the distance across the mesodermal tissue is minimized • Glide in water/mucus or do squiggle like a worm for movement • Have a branched digestive system which helps in good nutrient absorption, along with a pharynx that sucks in food particles • Can be regenerated (you can cut them up and they will grow back) • Have an excretory system that pumps out water - Flame cell: a cup shaped cell that connects to the ducts and creates water movement - Ducts: move water from flame cells into nephridiophores (where the water exists) • Have a nervous system that consists of ganglia, cords, and other sensory structures - Ganaglia: nerve cell clusters - Cords: connect nerve cells - Sensory structures include the ocellus (eye) and auricles (ears/nose) • Have a reproductive system - Female: contains ovary, oviduct, and genital pore - Male: contains penis/serus, testis, and vas deferens v Class Turbellaria • Planarians (free living) v Class Trematoda • “Flukes” • Contains all parasites • Have complex life cycles in which more than 2 hosts are needed to accomplish the transport of different larval stages • You rarely see ocelli, auricles, or flame cells in this species v Class Cestoda • “Tapeworms” • Have a scolex, which is the attachment site for strobili • Tiny hair like foldings called microtrich help in absorbing nutrients • Are parasites from the gut of vertebrae Phylum Nemertea v Characteristics Biology 1030 Exam 3 Study Guide (Folkerts) • Contain ribbon worm and proboscis • Have a complete gut and true circulatory system • The longest animal on earth is apart of this phylum • Lineus longissimus: bootlace worm Phylum Mollusca v Characteristics • Have a thin body wall called the visceral mass that contains the organs within it • Have one foot • Contain a mantle which creates a cavity and has 3 layers - Periostracum - Prismatic layer - Nacreous layer • The shell is highly calcareous • Radulas and crystalline styles are the feeding structures v Class Polyplacophora • Have shells that are divided into 8 valves • Have a thick mantle to help in gripping substances v Class Gastropoda • Conchs, snails, whelks, abalone, etc. • Contain a coiled shell with an asymmetrical body - Protoconch: the shell you start with, aka the pointy part of the shell - Body whorl: the shell you end with that contains the body o Operculum: the flap connected to the body whorl which covers the opening v Class Cephalopoda • “The head foots” • Include squid, octopus, and nautilus • The foot is either divided into 8 arms (octopus) or 8 arms and 2 legs (squid) • The mantle forms the body tube • Squids: masters of color change • Chambered nautilus: the only type of cephalopoda that contains a shell v Class Bivalvia • The largest class • Have a 2 part, hinged shell • Giant clams: sessile, symbiotic algae • Oysters: sessile, have a reduced foot and one valve attached to the substrate • Scallops: swim by rapidly opening and closing their shell, and have large adductor muscles with eyes on the edge of the mantle • Clams: have a burrowing foot that enables them to live below the ground Biology 1030 Exam 3 Study Guide (Folkerts) Old Test Notes 1) Ctenophora are the largest animals, which use cilia for movement. 2) Ctenes and colloblasts are the pair of structures, which are found in comb jellies. 3) The polyp stage is where sexual reproduction occurs in anemones and corals. 4) Earthworms are apart of Annelida. 5) Diploblastic animals lack a mesoderm. 6) Members of the Phylum Mollusca have one foot and a calcareous shell. 7) Medusa is the predominant stage in the scyphozoan life cycle. 8) Cnidaria is diploblastic. 9) Sponges have filter feeding for their feeding mode. 10)Blastopores develop by gastrulation. 11)The symmetry in comb jellies is biradial symmetry. 12)Trematodas have a complex life cycle with 2+ hosts, one of which is a mollusk. 13)Turbellaria are a class of flatworms that do not contain parasitic species. 14)Choanocytes are specialized cells, which can only be found in the Porifera. 15)The segmented worm is called annelida 16)Platyhelmenthes is acoelmate with a single gut. 17)Cnidaria contain stinging cells. 18)Many parasitic members are in platyhementhes. 19)The sea wasp that has a fatal sting is apart of cubazoa. 20)Parazoa is the lack of symmetry in tissues and organs. 21)Holes that develop due to gastrulation are called blastopores. 22)Water exitsts through the osculum in sponges. 23)The level of organization in Porifera is cellular. 24)Water enters through the ostia in sponges. 25)The level of organization is tissue in cnidaria. 26)Humans can get infected from walking barefoot by a nector americanus (hookworm). 27)The swimming larval stage in cnidaria is called a planula. 28)The space in-between organs in acoelmate animals, is filled with mesoderm tissue. 29)The egg stage of the beef life cycle is when the tapeworm is transmitted into the cattle. 30)Snails are likely to undergo torsion while they are developing. 31)Mollusca contain a mantle. 32)Hydrozoans have polyp and medusa. 33)Trematoda has a complete digestive tract. 34)Strobilization is longitudinal budding, which is seen in cestodes and cnidarians. 35)Anemones and corals are apart of anthozoa.