If astronauts could travel at v _ 0.950c, we on Earth would say it takes (4.20/0.950) _ 4.42 years to reach Alpha Centauri, 4.20 light-years away. The astronauts disagree. (a) How much time passes on the astronauts clocks? (b) What is the distance to Alpha Centauri as measured by the astronauts?
EXAM 2 Study Guide (Ch. 22-24) Chapter 22 Immune System 22.1 Overview of Diseases- Caused by Infectious Agents 1. What are the similarities and differences between the five classes of infectious agents 2. What is a prion What disease do thy cause 22.2 Overview of the Immune System 3. What are the types of leukocytes of the immune system and their locations 4. What are Cytokines and how are they similar to hormones 5. What are the similarities and differences of innate and adaptive immunity 22.3 Innate Immunity 6. Describe the physical, chemical, and biological barriers to entry of harmful agents into the body. 7. What are the cells that functions in innate immunity 8. What is the general function of interferons 9. What is the complement system and how is it activated 10. What are the four parts that complement participates in innate immunity 11. What is inflammation and what are the steps involved (formation of exudate and removing harmful substances) 12. What are the benefits to inflammation 13. What are the cardinal signs of inflammation and why each sign occurs 14. What is a fever and how does it occur 15. What are the benefits and risks of having a fever 22.4 Adaptive Immunity 16. What are the features of antigens, and what is meant by antigenic determinant 17. What is immunogenicity, and list attributes that affect it 18. How does haptens stimulate immune responses 19. What receptors or both T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes 20. What is antigen presentation 21. What antigen-presenting cells, and the cells that serves this function 22. What is the process of formation of MHC class I molecules in nucleated cells and MHC class II molecules in professional antigen-presentation cells 23. What are the three significant events that occur in the lifetime of a lymphocyte 22.5 Formation and Selection of Lymphocytes 24. How do T-Lymphocytes mature 25. What are the similarities and differences of positive and negative selection of T-lymphocytes 26. What are the additional changes to T-lymphocytes after selection 22.6 Activation and Clonal Selection of Lymphocytes 27. How do both T-lymphocytes and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes are activated 28. What is the role played by IL-2 in both activations 29. What are the similarities in the activation of B-lymphocytes with that of T- lymphocytes 30. What are the lymphocytes recirculation and explain the general function 22.7 Effector Response at Infection Site 31. What is the effector response of helper T-lymphocytes 32. How does an unhealthy cell get destroyed by a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte 33. Why the processes of T-lymphocytes are collectively called the cell-mediated branch of adaptive immunity 34. What is the function of plasma cells in the effector response of B- lymphocytes 35. What is antibody titer 22.8 Immunoglobulins 36. What are the general structure of an immunoglobulin molecules, including its two functional regions 37. What are the functions of the antigen-binding site and Fc region of antibodies, and briefly describe how each occurs 38. What are the structures, locations, and specific function of the five classes of immunoglobulins 22.9 Immunologic Memory and Immunity 39. What immunologic memory and explain how it occurs 40. What are the differences between the primary response and the secondary response to antigen exposure 41. What is active immunity and passive immunity 42. How does both active and passive immunity can be acquired naturally and artificially Chapter 23 Respiratory System 23.1 Introduction to the Respiratory System 1. What are the functions of the respiratory system 2. What is the difference between the structural organization and the functional organization of the respiratory system 3. What is the structure of the mucosa that lines the respiratory tract and the structural changes observed along its length 4. What is the function of mucus produced by the mucosa 23.2 Upper Respiratory Tract 5. What is the structure and function of the nose 6. What is the general description of the structure and function of the nasal cavity 7. What is the structure and the function of the four paired paranasal sinuses 8. What are the similarities the three regions of the pharynx and describe their associated structures 23.3 Lower Respiratory Tract 9. What are the general functions and structure of the larynx 10. How does the larynx functions in the sound production 11. What is the structure of the trachea 12. What is the structure and function of the tracheal cartilages 13. What is the structural subdivisions of the bronchial trees 14. What is the processes of bronchodilation and bronchoconstriction 15. What is the structure and function of the components of the respiratory zone 16. What are the three types of cells found in alveoli, and describe the function of each 17. What is the structure of the respiratory membrane 23.4 Lungs 18. What is the location and general structure of the lungs 19. What are the similarities and differences between each lung (left and right) 20. What are the two types of blood circulation through the lungs 21. What is the innervation of the lung structures by the autonomic nervous system 22. What is the pleural membranes and pleural cavity 23. What is the function of serous fluid in the pleural cavity 24. What is the anatomic properties that keep lungs inflated 23.5 Respiration: Pulmonary Ventilation 25. What is the summary of the process of pulmonary ventilation 26. How are the pressure gradients are established and result in pulmonary ventilation 27. What is the relationship between pressure and volume as described by Boyle’s Law 28. What is the differences between the quiet and forced breathing 29. What is the anatomic structures involved in regulating breathing 30. What is the physiologic events associated with controlling quiet breathing 31. What is the different reflexes that alter breathing rate and depth 32. What is the difference between the nervous system control of the structures of the respiratory system and nervous system control of structures involved in breathing 33. What is airflow 34. How is pressure gradients and resistance determine airflow 35. What is the difference between pulmonary ventilation and alveolar ventilation, and discuss the significance of each 36. What is the relationship between the anatomic dead space and physiologic dead space 23.6 Respiration: Alveolar and Systemic Gas Exchange 37. What is the partial pressure and the movement of gases relative to a partial pressure gradient 38. What is the partial pressure that are relevant to gas exchange 39. What are the laws that govern gas solubility 40. What is the alveolar gas exchange and the partial pressure gradients responsible 41. What are the two anatomic features of the respiratory membrane that contribute to efficient alveolar gas exchange 42. What is ventilation-perfusion coupling and how it maximizes alveolar gas change 43. What is the partial pressure gradients between the systemic cells and the blood circulation 44. What are the difference between alveolar and systemic gas exchange 23.7 Respiration: Gas Transport 45. Why is hemoglobin essential to oxygen transport 46. What are the three ways carbon dioxide is transported in the blood 47. How is the conversion of CO t2 and from HCO wit3in erythrocytes 48. What are the three substances carried by hemoglobin 49. What is the significance of the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve for both alveolar and systemic gas exchange 23.8 Breathing Rate and Hemostasis 50. How is hyperventilation and hypoventilation influence the chemical components of blood 51. How is breathing rate and depth affect venous return of blood and lymph Chapter 24 Urinary System 24.1 Introduction of the Urinary System 1. What is the structures that compose the urinary system, and provide a description of the general function of each 2. What are the functions of the kidneys 24.2 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney 3. What is the location of the kidneys in the body 4. What are the four tissue layers that surround and support the kidneys 5. What are the two distinct regions of the kidney and the components of each 6. What is the relationship between minor calyces and renal pelvis 24.3 Functional Anatomy of the Kidney 7. What is a renal corpuscle and its components 8. What is the location and structure for the three components of a renal tubule 9. What the two types of nephrons and the functional differences between them 10. What is the relationship between collecting tubules and collecting ducts 11. What are the two types of specialized epithelial cells found within distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules and ducts 12. What is the location and structure of the juxtaglomerular apparatus 13. What are the two actions of granular cells 14. What is the function of cells of the macula densa 24.4 Blood Flow and Filtered Fluid Flow 15. What are the arteries that supply the kidney, in sequence from largest to smallest 16. What are the two capillary beds through which blood must pass in the kidney 17. What are the veins through blood which blood leaves the kidney, in sequence from smallest and largest 18. What is the difference between filtrate, tubular fluid and urine 19. What is the fluid from its formation at the renal corpuscle until it exits the body through the urethra 24.5 Production of Filtrate Within the Renal Corpuscle 20. What are the similarities and differences between the renal processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion 21. What are the three layers that make up the glomerular filtration membrane 22. What are examples of substances that are freely filtered that are not filtered and that are filtered in a limited way 23. What are the phagocytic functions of mesangial cells 24. What is the glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HP )gand explain why it is higher then the pressure in other capillaries 25. What are the two pressure that oppose HP g 26. How do you calculate the net filtration pressure 27. What is glomerular filtration rate and the factors that influence it 28. What is meant by intrinsic and extrinsic controls and give examples of each 29. What are the myogenic response and the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, which are involved in renal autoregulation 30. What are the effects of sympathetic division stimulation on the glomerular filtration rate 31. What are the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on the glomerular filtration rate 24.6 Reabsorption and Secretion in Tubules and Collecting Ducts 32. What are the five characteristics and conditions that affect tubular reabsorption and secretion 33. What is the transport maximum of a substance 34. What is meant by renal threshold 35. What is the reabsorption of nutrients such as glucose 36. What is the process by which protein is transported out of the filtrate and into the blood 37. What are the substances for which reabsorption is regulated 38. How does the reabsorption of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate occurs 39. How does the reabsorption of water and compare how it is regulated by the actions of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormones 40. How pH is regulated in the collecting tubules 41. What are the three nitrogenous waste products, and describe the fate of each 42. What are examples of other materials eliminated by kidneys 24.8 Urine Characteristics, Transport, Storage, and Elimination 43. What is the composition of urine and its characteristics 44. What is meant by specific gravity 45. What is the structure and function of the ureters 46. What is the structure of the urinary bladder 47. What are the characteristics of the female male urethra 48. What is micturition 49. What is the storage reflex and the micturition reflex 50. What is the conscious control over micturition