for the functions f(x) 3x, , and h(x) 10x1, nd the function value at the indicated points.
ES 001 – Notes on Readings for 2/29 Tragedy of the Commons – Hardin - “invisible hand” – an individual will promote the public interest in the search for personal gain. - Tragedy of the Commons as illustrated by the cow herd example: o If a man adds 1 cow to his herd, the positive utility (benefit/gain) to him personally is nearly +1, because he receives all the money/benefits that the cow is making for him. o The negative utility (cost/drawback) to the man personally is only a fraction of -1 because the negative effects (which could include the extra feed needed, space the cow takes up, resources that the cow is using, damage done to the land) are also felt among the other herdsmen and the environment. o So, of course the man will choose to get another cow because the great benefit it has to him makes it worth it; this makes sense for him personally, even though there is a negative cost to the environment and other people. o In getting another cow, the man is benefiting himself but at the same time drawing too much from a world of limited resources. - “Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit – in a world that is limited.” Privatization is the Real Tragedy of the Commons - Ovetz - According to Ovetz, “privatization of the commons is the real tragedy” - Hardin (above article) is incorrect in assuming that men who own property feel a responsibility to care for it; people just take what they need and move on to the next location, have no attachment to their land. - American society vs. Indigenous communities – indigenous people hold shared beliefs and values that compel them to coexist in balance with nature and the environment. - No longer just individuals violating the limits of the environment, it is now also huge corporations that make a huge impact. - When we lose the POV that the land must be shared and kept healthy for future generations, that is when the damage occurs. What is Water Privatization - Privatization – when public resources are transferred to private companies o Water privatization specifically refers to the control/maintenance of water systems/water resources by private entities - Water privatization = controversial o Some places might establish laws to give citizens more rights and to restrict the water rights of corporations o Private companies might try to expand water rights for their own benefit Private Water Saves Lives – Segerfeldt - Water issue isn’t about a global shortage of water, but rather about bad policies - Businesses and privatization, when used properly, have been proven to improve water distribution and get water to the most people - Main argument against privatization: privatization increases prices, which makes water unaffordable for many people o This is true in some cases, but not all o Since water is a basic need/right, its distribution should not be put in the hands of private companies that seek profit - We should focus on how to make privatization work better, rather than scrapping it completely The Perils of Privatization - Hauter - Water privatization => treating water as a product to make money off of it; the poor can’t afford it, even though water should be a basic right for everyone - “Surveys of U.S. utilities show that privately owned water utilities charge customers significantly higher water rates than their publicly owned counterparts charge – anywhere from 13 percent to almost 50 percent more” - Example of privatization gone wrong: o Bolivia ~ a private company signed a contract and took over water services. Ignored the contract => charged high fees and left some neighborhoods without any water at all