solve each system of linear equations by substitution.
1. Anti Semitism: although “Semitic” properly refers to Arab and other peoples as well as Jews, the term “antiSemitism” has come to be applied to expressions of prejudice against Jews in general. 2. Apocalypse: a Judaism and Christianity, the dramatic end of the present age. 3. Ashkenazim: an ethic grouping of the Jews that migrated first to Italy, spread throughout central and eastern Europe and thence on to the Americas. 4. Diaspora: the dispersal of the Jews after the Babylonian exile 5. Ghetto: an urban area occupied by those rejected by a society, such as quarters for Jews in some European cities. 6. Haggadah: the nonlegal part of the Talmud and Midrash 7. Halakhah: Jewish legal decision and the parts of ththTalmud dealing with the laws. 8. Hasidism: ecstatic Jewish piety, dating from 18 century Poland 9. Kabbalah: the Jewish mystical tradition 10. Kosher: ritually acceptable, applied to foods in Jewish Orthodox 11. Messiah: “the anointed”, the expected king and deliverer of the Jews, a term later applied by Christians to Jesus. 12. Midrash: the literature of delving into the Jewish Torah 13. Minyan: the quorum of ten adult males required for Jewish communal worship 14. Mitzvah: in Judaism, a divine commandment or sacred deed in fulfillment of a commandment. 15. Oral torah: interpretation of written Jewish law, according to verbal traditions 16. Orthodox Judaism: observing the traditional rabbinical “Halakah” the strictest form of Judaism 17. Pentateuch: the five books of Moses at the beginning of the Hebrew bible 18. Rabbi: teacher the ordained spiritual leader of a Jewish congregation 19. Reform or liberal Judaism: Movement that began in the 19 century as a way of modernizing the religion and making it more accessible and open ended. 20. Sabbath: the day of the week set aside for the rest and worship from sunset Friday night to sunset Saturday. 21. Sephardim: an ethnic grouping of the Jews who migrated first to Spain and then to North Africa, the Americas, and back to west Asia. 22. Shekhinah: god’s presence in the world, in Judaism 23. Synagogue: meeting place for Jewish study and worship 24. Talmud: Jewish law and lore, as finally complied in the 16 century 25. Tanakh: the Jewish scriptures 26. Torah: the Pentateuch also the whole body of Jewish teaching and law 27. Zionism: movement dedicated to the establishment of a politically viable, internationally recognized Jewish state in the biblical land of Israel. 28. Semite: is a modern linguistic term applied to Jews, Arabs, and other eastern origin whose languages are classified as semitic 29. Sadducees: priests and wealthy businesspeople, conservatives intent of preserving the law 30. Pharisees: were more liberal citizens from all classes who sought to study the applications of the Torah to everyday life 31. Mishnah: method of deriving legal principles for social order is based on logical analysis of how things are and why they are so. It systematically sets up hierarchical classifications such as levels of women’s status and domestic responsibilities. 32. Reform Judaism: was moving farther and farther away from its traditional moorings 33. Modern Orthodoxy; values secular knowledge and integration with non Jewish society s that its members can be enriched by interaction with the modern world and also help to uplift it at the same time it is dedicated to the national and religious significance of Israel and to Jewish law is divinely given. 34. Religious Zionism: which is based on the teachings of Rabbi Abraham kook places central emphasis on resettlement of the Jewish people in Israel as he working out of a divine plane for the salvation not only of Jews but also for the whole world 35. Haredi (ultra orthodox): Judaism which may overlap with religious Zionism especially in Israel is generally in favor of a degree of detachment from non jewish culture so that the community can focus on the stud of the torah 36. Lubavich Hasidim: are devoted to extending their message to as many jews as possible using all the tools of modern technology for their sacred purpose 37.