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Answer: The potential (relative to a point at infinity)

University Physics with Modern Physics (1) | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780321973610 | Authors: Hugh D. Young Roger A. Freedman ISBN: 9780321973610 228

Solution for problem Q23.2 Chapter 23

University Physics with Modern Physics (1) | 14th Edition

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University Physics with Modern Physics (1) | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780321973610 | Authors: Hugh D. Young Roger A. Freedman

University Physics with Modern Physics (1) | 14th Edition

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Problem Q23.2

The potential (relative to a point at infinity) midway between two charges of equal magnitude and opposite sign is zero. Is it possible to bring a test charge from infinity to this midpoint in such a way that no work is done in any part of the displacement? If so, describe how it can be done. If it is not possible, explain why

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AncientNearEast15 WinterQuarter INSTRUCTOR:KaraCooney Women Power in Roman Empire Line of mountains separating the country into east and west Super hard to organize, always in constant competition within itself ­ constant goggles up other entities and what makes them grow bigger Economy ­ agriculture revenue ­ main economic resource ­ grain based and wheat A limited set of elites ­ oligarchy system Senate ­ exclusively males working with plebeian councils Complications come with an increase in urbanization Power in the hands of a middle class act like a mob ­ communal and brutal physical force Dictator pops in and out, warlords have to listen to them People who are constantly fighting against each other have to work together More centralization in the military aspect Place that values money and economic power more than other places mediterranean sea is the main part ­ 1: 5: 50 Around 30 BCE we see move Roman Empires go from competing warlords to more centralized governmental system Emperor system doesn’t start until Princeps ­ Julius Caesar Princeps is not the most long lived Roman Government ● Republic vs Principate ● Empire is a different thing from Republic and Principate ● Republic = decentralized ,highly competitive system of rule ○ Patriarchal system in which women had to be under leadership of a man and were formally excluded from power ○ Female power = only informally held ● Principate = Emperor chosen by kind of hereditary monarchy ○ so power given to women as wife, mother, daughter of the emperor ○ Female power still informally conferred ○ Family units in competition (warlords) constantly remarrying to create alliances 1 ○ Women involved in competition ○ Female power still informally held, but there is a kind of title and label associated with the King, thus making their power more overt ○ You are connecting to her wealth ­ warlording expressed through marriage 1. smart, educated females will find power 2. females are going to find power in crisis rather in status quo As a member of the family power she can yield economic and military power If a woman has ideological power generally means she’s sacrificing potential economic and military power She often does so through immorality ­ by sleeping with man outside of marriage and buidling power through lovers Average age of death ­ earlier empire there are more stability Men ruling in middle age for just 6 years ­ the amount of turnovers are extraordinary Fulvia ● First husband murdered after political run­in with Cicero, and she dragged his body through the streets in mourning ● Cicero ­ important senator ● Fulvia is great at influencing the mob, ferment support ● Second husband killed while fighting for Julius Caesar in North Africa ● Marc Antony was her 3rd husband. 46 BCE. Political force together and had two sons ● Finding her power through informality ● Octavian married her daughter to cement alliance with Marc Antony ● From a rich, new­money, populist family with a network of Roman gangs. Great power in Roman politics (old patricians and plebeian family, not considered elite) ● Went after enemies, including Cicero in 43 BCE ● Helped organize an Perusine War against Octavian in 42 BCE while Antony was in Egypt (with Cleopatra) ● 41 BCE Octavian divorced Fulvia’s daughter and accused Fulvia of trying to gain power ● First Roman woman to appear on coinage ● While Antony in the east, she publicly proclaimed Marc Antony superior to Octavian in Perusine war in 42 ­ 41 BCE, in which she raised 8 legions, fighting in Italy. Defeated and she fled to Greece with her children. Antony is angry she started a war in his absence ● She died in exile. Antony married Octavian’s sister ● Cleopatra cleverly links with Julius Caesar and Mark Anthony ● Only woman who almost created her genetic legacy in history Octavia the Younger ● Partly senatorial 2 ● Sister to Octavian (Augustus) ● 4th wife of Marc Antony (her 2nd marriage) = approved Senate. Seen as a means of bringing together Mark Antony and Octavia ● She supplied wealth for armies, but he abandoned her for Clepatra in 39 BCE. He divorced her in 32 BCE ● After his suicide, she raised his children from wife Fulvia and children from Cleopatra, in addition to her two daughters with him and two sons from earlier marriage ● Remembered for the virtues of a Roman patrician woman. Honored at her death by all of Rome Julia ● Daughter of Octavian (Augustus). Only natural child of Augustus. He divorced her mother Scribonia on day of her birth because he wanted to marry Livia ● 2nd husband was Agrippa (at 16), Augustus’ most trusted general (the one that is being picked) ● 3rd husband was Tiberius, Augustus’ step­son (who had to divorce to marry her) ● Said to have been promiscuous; many lovers ● Arrested for adultery and treason. Marriage to Tiberius dissolved by Augustus ● Exiled to island of Pandateria with her mother. Allowed no visitors and no wine ● Her three sons with Agrippa all adopted by Augustus, but after exile, they were murdered ● When Tiberius became emperor, cut off her allowance and may have starved her to death We have a system that encourages a great deal of partner switching and shifting among heterosexual partners in Ancient Rome, that helps form the organic women power Livia ● 3rd wife of Octavian ● 39 BC ­ 8 years before Octavian will become Caesar Augustus ● Pregant with the second son (in the picture of powerpoint) ● Married for 51 years ● One of the reason hereditary monarchy will fail ● Roman understand ideologically that monogamous relationship in a marriage: no harem allowed ● Unsuccessful hier ● A ton of principate guys that cannot create offsprings ­ create many problems for women to push sons into power ● Other children such as Tiberius ● Treated as a counselor ­ no formal power of rule but Octavian listens to her advices and opinions ● 2nd power is through her son, typical good roman women, trying to influence the authority of people who have power ● Very clever 3 ● In a system that you can have marriage that provides them economical and political power with serial monogamy but you can also have lovers ● Rome: serial monogamy vs lover relationships below the surface ● Marriage is legitimised but informal pairing system below connecting other roman powerful families to create political power ● Livia steps back from affairs or ostentatious power when everyone is rich and can show off his or her power ● Livia and Octavian keeps things very austere ● Livia sees potential in Julia to make his own genetic offspring to her son Tiberius ­ marriage linkage but… ● Essentially making her husband to abandon his own daughter Julia and gets him to take her son Tiberius to take on the throne direction ­ she is very powerful in terms of overlooking his genetic offspring and legacy ● Removing the grandsons of Octavian (Agrippa and Julia’s sons) murdering his grandsons ● Able to use informal sexual, political and economic power and also work through ancient formal power push through status quo ­ such as murdering Octavian’s grandsons ● Using her husband’s formal power to push away Julia to secure her son’s throne ● Continuously manipulating principates even during Tiberius’s reign makes Tiberius hates her Julia’s level of anxiety was off the charts ­ marrying Tiberius because her mother­in­law tells her to and the exiled by Octavian because Livia was telling Octavian things bad about her Valeria Messalina ● 3rd wife of Claudius when he’s not an emperor ● Empress using her son (not her husband’s genetic legacy) to get throne power ● learned that the informal sexual pairings to use political power ● The fact that she and her lover plotted against the emperor lead to her execution Agrippina the Younger ● Essentially the only heir left of Augustus Caesar ● Pass over for assassination by Livia since she’s not a male, but used to marry potential males who can be the emperor in the future ● Sister of emperor Caligula ­ historians tell us that Druscilla ● As the hereditary monarchy ­ informal sexual pairings ­ incestuous for political powers ● She was in a plot to kill her brother Caligula, and a plot to kill herself ● Exiled by her brother and not killed ● Granddaughter of Caesar Augustus and has a son Nero: she has to best position to the princeps position than anyone else, people will try their best to kill Nero, especially Valeria ● Ends up becoming the 4th wife of emperor Claudius ­ problem here: serial monogamy because she’s marrying her uncle 4 ● Removes many other threats brutally, as she watched so many assassinations and grew up around anxiety and political murders ● Going after Britannicus ● Crowning Nero as princep after she gets what she wants she poisons her husband and uncle ● Ends up ruling alongside him ­ regent, kind of steps back enough from that rule Why did Roman Women have so much power in the Principate formation and early Principate ● So much competition among the families to utilize sexual power ● In other places there would be a morality break ● Women are powerful players ● Ideological allows women to act as agents ● competition increases so much as the hereditary monarchy gets so bad you end up getting monarchy leaders that are moving in and out of power ● big overall pattern that in the second and 3rd century CE there’s such a military element of who’s going to be the next princeps that women have no power in between Boudica ● Roman treaty with her husband broken upon his death because the crown could not pass to daughters (no male heir), and her independent lands seized by Romans ● Queen of the Iceni tribe in Britain who led a revolt against Roman forces ● 60­61 CE destroyed Colchestor (a Roman colonia), routed a Roman legion, burned Londinium and St. Albans ● Defeated ● CRISIS ­ no men left and ends up loosing ● Create a coalition Veleda ● Priestess, used as a kind of a judge deal with those conflicts ● helped to create a coalition of germans when they are invading 69­70 CE ● not killed but taken into custody and taken hostage until natural death Zenobia ● 3rd century CE Queen of Palmyra (North Eastern Syria) ● Empire is fragmented after his death ● Ruled after her husband Odaenthus’ death in 267 CE ● Of Sele Lucilla ● Daughter of Marcus Aurelius ● Married to Lucius Verus. At his death married Pompeianus ● Caught in a plot against her brother and is exiled 5 ● After she trying to work informal sexual power in the ways of early principate and gain control ● Good faith attempt Hypatia ● Neo­platonist philosopher in Roman Alexandria 4th ­ 5th CE, christianity has long been established 6

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Chapter 23, Problem Q23.2 is Solved
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Textbook: University Physics with Modern Physics (1)
Edition: 14
Author: Hugh D. Young Roger A. Freedman
ISBN: 9780321973610

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Answer: The potential (relative to a point at infinity)