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Which of the following correctly describes the

An Introduction to Physical Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9781133109099 | Authors: James Shipman, Jerry D. Wilson, Charles A. Higgins ISBN: 9781133109099 229

Solution for problem 2 Chapter 21

An Introduction to Physical Science | 13th Edition

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An Introduction to Physical Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9781133109099 | Authors: James Shipman, Jerry D. Wilson, Charles A. Higgins

An Introduction to Physical Science | 13th Edition

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Problem 2

Which of the following correctly describes the lithosphere?(21.1)(a) It is the same as the Earths crust.(b) It is the same as the Earths upper mantle.(c) It is the part of the mantle below the asthenosphere.(d) It consists of the crust and part of the upper mantle.

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Module #18-­‐ Basic concepts of sensation and perception Sunday, February 28, 2016 5:55 PM -­ Heather Sellersc 'urious mix of "perfect vision" and face blindness: the distinction between sensation and perception ○ Sensation: the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment (sensory receptors detect information→nervous system transmits the information to her brain) [normal] ○ Perception: the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events [almost normal] ○ Bottom -­‐up processing: analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information [build up from smallest pieces of sensory info/detect lines, angels, colors…] ○ Top-­‐down processing: constructs perceptions from the sensory input by drawing on our experience and expectations [perception that's driven by perception/ the brain applies what you know/expected -­‐-­‐ perception by content/your brain add meanings] -­ Transduction: the process of converting one form of energy into another that our brain can use § Eg. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies (sights, sounds, smells…) into neural impulses our brain can interpret ○ Three basic steps to all our sensory systems § Receive sensory stimulation (specialized receptor cells) § Transform that stimulation into neural impulses § Deliver the neural information to our brain ○ Psychophysics: studies the relationships between the physical energy we can detect and its effects on our psychological experiences -­ Thresholds ○ Absolute thresholds: the minimum stimulus energy needed to detect a particular stimulus (eg. Light, sound, pressure, taste…) 50% of the time [the point where sth. Becomes noticeable to our sense-­‐s-­‐-­‐anything less than this goes unnoticed] ○ For weak stimulus (or signal, such as hearing-­‐test tone): signal detection theory § A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise) [no single absolute threshold and the detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness]/[why people respond differently to the same stimuli, and why the same person's reactions vary as circumstances change] ○ Subliminal: stimuli you cannot detect 50 percent of the time for conscious awareness (below your absolute threshold) ○ Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response § Much of our information processing occurs automatically, out of sight, off the radar screen of our conscious mind. ○ Difference thresholds (just noticeable difference: jnd): the minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time [the stimulus becomes detectable to us, how do we recognize if the stimulus changes] § It can increase with the size of the stimulus § Weber's law (Ernst Weber): the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage(rather than a constant screen of our conscious mind. ○ Difference thresholds (just noticeable difference: jnd): the minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time [the stimulus becomes detectable to us, how do we recognize if the stimulus changes] § It can increase with the size of the stimulus § Weber's law (Ernst Weber): the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage(rather than a constant amount) □ Ex. Lights: 8%, weights: 2%, tones: 0.3% -­ Subliminal Persuasion ○ Acknowledge/ influence people in certain way (powerful) -­ Sensory adaptation: diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation ○ Benefit: freedom to focus on informative changes in our environment without being distracted by background chatter ○ We perceived the world not exactly as it is, but as it is useful for us to perceived it. ○ It allows us to focus on changing stimuli -­ Perceptual Set: a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another, affects (top-­‐down) what we hear, taste, feel and see ○ What determine our perceptual set -­‐the preexisting schemas (influence how we apply top-­‐down processing to interpret ambiguous sensations) -­ Context Effects ○ The context creates an expectation that, top down, influences our perception -­ Motivation and Emotion ○ Influence perceptions (top-­‐down) and color our social perceptions ○ Perceptual bias

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Chapter 21, Problem 2 is Solved
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Textbook: An Introduction to Physical Science
Edition: 13
Author: James Shipman, Jerry D. Wilson, Charles A. Higgins
ISBN: 9781133109099

This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 24 chapters, and 736 solutions. Since the solution to 2 from 21 chapter was answered, more than 284 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “Which of the following correctly describes the lithosphere?(21.1)(a) It is the same as the Earths crust.(b) It is the same as the Earths upper mantle.(c) It is the part of the mantle below the asthenosphere.(d) It consists of the crust and part of the upper mantle.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 46 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: An Introduction to Physical Science, edition: 13. An Introduction to Physical Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781133109099. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 2 from chapter: 21 was answered by , our top Physics solution expert on 01/09/18, 07:57PM.

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