In 716, show that each sequence is geometric. Then find the common ratio and write out the first four terms.
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This will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the work submitted or for the entire course. It may also result in academic dismissal from the University. BTM71038 John Halstead, PhD Research Design Assignment 7 Faculty Use Only 2 Introduction Quantitative and qualitative methods both have a role in conducting research. Each method utilizes a different approach to how data is collected and subsequently analyzed. Conducting a research study is complex and exceptionally difficult even for seasoned and experienced researchers. New researchers experience a variety of issues while conducting initial research projects. The issues include items such as (a) errors, (b) flaws, (c) omissions, and (d) conceptual gaps (Leong & Austin, 2006). The purpose of this week’s assignment is to utilize the information learned from the previous weeks and to develop hypothetical study that will show both a quantitative and qualitative design. The hypothetical study will be based on the topic of identifying the number of individuals taking a taxi based upon ingesting too many alcoholic beverages in a selected one block location. More specifically, the hypothetical research project will incorporate a selected area identified that is primarily made up of restaurants and bars. By understanding how many people at any given time will need a cab based upon too drinks will help a taxi company schedule an appropriate number of taxis over each threehour period. … Research Method Criteria Choosing an appropriate research method, quantitative or qualitative is one of the first steps that must be taken to ensure a successful study. By understanding both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, the best possible method can be selected to provide a desired output. This is otherwise known as, the goal state. The goal state is based upon findings from prior research. The researcher must identify the desired end state that he/she wants to accomplish and subsequently must choose the method that best fits the type of data to be collected. A researcher must walkthrough the process of a study and identify each step of the research prior to 3 conducting the study. This walkthrough is termed the pilot study. By working through each of the steps and developing a mental model, a researcher can test a hypothesis prior to completing a full study. It can also help to avoid any major mistakes when the main study is conducted. The value of a pilot study is valuable to any researcher, but is generally not publicized (Doody, 2015). Qualitative market research is primarily used at times that a more in depth understanding of consumer behavior and motivation is required, while quantitative studies are focused on specific numerical facts that answers the ‘what’ questions (Barnham, 2015). Additional strengths of a quantitative study involve a carefully planned research project that incorporates detailed data collection yielding numerical data (Quick & Hall, 2015). The strengths of a qualitative study are primarily related to the amount of description that can be acquired by the question and answers as well as the observation. The data that is being collected is descriptive in nature rather than purely a numerical quality (Cozby, 2012). Qualitative studies are ideal for generating new theories or hypotheses, achieving a deep understanding of the issue or issues at hand, and (c) for developing detailed stories to describe the root cause(s) of a phenomenon (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). Researchers generally have a primary objective and a secondary subgoal when conducting a study. One area a researcher must take into consideration is to ensure informed consents are provided by the subjects (Leong & Austin, 2006). By identifying the goal and subgoal up front, a researcher will be able to choose an appropriate method. Design Considerations According to Leong and Austin, (2006) a researcher must consider the following prior to 4 selecting the design: “(a) the specific purpose that the design should accomplish, (b) the criteria for deciding whether the design has a high probability of accomplishing that purpose, and (c) knowledge of the logic of the design so that the design can be modified to optimally accomplish the goal and avoid problems”. As a research design is considered, there are four specific steps that should be followed to develop a research project. The first step involves developing a hypothesis that is based upon a given theory. A researcher must create a specific hypothesis that will likely occur if a given set of conditions are met. The example could be something as simple as people in a bar setting are more likely to drink to excess than in a restaurant setting. The data could be used to determine the number of taxis needed in a particular area based upon the number of bars and/or restaurants in that area. After developing a hypothesis, the second step is to choose the operations that represent the constructs represented in the hypothesis. To succeed at testing a hypothesis, a researcher must select an appropriate method to test said hypothesis. An example of this is could be testing a social experiment to monitor 50 individuals in each type of setting in the same time period. The third step would involve utilizing a covariation of operations. If during the study the results were evaluated by breaking the individuals down per age group. The study could look at determining if the crowd is of a certain age and then identify whether the individuals choose a taxi, walking, bicycling, riding with a friend, or driving. Based upon a particular type of crowd the bars and restaurants attract, a taxi service could begin to estimate taxis needed based upon the type of crowd and events promoted to a given crowd in that area. The fourth step is to determine if the results actually do measure the intended output. It 5 can be tested by reverse engineering the process. By utilizing the results of the study and employing the calculated number of taxis, the customers should not have to wait for a taxi upon exiting a bar or restaurant in a given area. While each of the four steps for the overall generic research design are defined, the next steps will be to develop a quantitative and qualitative study. Quantitative In order to develop a quantitative study out of this design, 50 individuals are scored as they leave the bars and restaurants within a one block area. The study will take place in 3 hour segments. The data collected with be numerical in nature and allow a researcher to depict the scale of intoxication of the individuals choosing to take taxis over other modes of transportation. The level of intoxication can be rated on a scale of 05. Zero will identify as not intoxicated at all and a five represents a level of falling down intoxicated. The individuals will then be questioned and identified by number within specified age ranges; under 21, 2125, 2630, 3040, and 41 and above. In addition, gender and proximity to housing can be graded by distance. One other criteria to measure would involve the number of people within each party. Each factor acquired will go towards developing the characteristics of the individuals and their mode of transportation. In addition, the information will utilize a scales and numerical factors to calculate the number of taxis needed per three hour periods on given days of the week. Qualitative The qualitative study would reflect descriptions of the individuals as well as the type of establishment as well as the events taking place throughout the block being studied. The descriptors of individuals could be broken down into the level of intoxication based upon 05 as well as a visual status of individuals that may lie about their level of intoxication. In addition, 6 notes will be taken to detail the type of event taking place in the area, to understand the type of individual the event will attract. This can help a taxi company to understand if the type of individual utilizing a taxi service is younger, older, or if age is not a factor. Another determination that could be made if the use of taxi service is event driven, such as a live band or tournament. The determination could also be influenced by the average wait time of cab service. Extensive notes about the environment, time of day, and events driving cab usage will need to be identified. Each item will be discussed in a descriptive matter to be able to develop an overall profile of the type of individual(s) that would be taking taxis based upon the events planned in the area. Conclusion As a researcher works through the process of a dissertation, a well thought out study must be developed. Stepping through the four steps of designing a study, included the broad scope of what is included within the design of a study. As the mock qualitative and quantitative studies were developed within this paper, it is very clear to see that this process is a long and intense process. Even something as simplistic as identifying the number of individuals that drank excessively that would need taxi services, became extraordinarily complex. Each time one detail was identified, there were six more that cropped up needing to be addressed. The examples were dependent on so many additional variables that the study became convoluted. Such variables such as the causes behind why people took a taxi over driving may be for a variety of reasons, not just drinking too much. To ensure individuals did not have to wait for a taxi could also be dependent upon how far the taxis had to go, the supply of drivers, etc. This variable could also affect those individuals taking a cab from this area. 7 Overall, the development of the basic design and more specifically a qualitative and quantitative design, will need extensive up front planning. Without developing a solid research design, a study will end up skewed, inaccurate, and invalid. If a researcher skimps on research design, illfated consequences will be faced down the line. 8 References Barnham, C. (2015). Quantitative and qualitative research. International Journal of Market Research, 57(6), 837854. doi:10.2501/IJMR2015070 Cozby, P. C. (2012). Methods in behavioral research. (3rd ed.). Boston, MA McGraw Hill Higher Education Doody, C. M. (2015). Conducting a pilot study: case study of a novice researcher. British Journal of Nursing, 24(21), 10741078 5p. doi:10.12968/bjon.2015.24.21.1074 Leong, F. & Austin, J. (2006). The psychology research handbook: A guide for graduate students and research assistants. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781412976626 Trochim, W., & Donnelly, J. (2008). The research methods knowledge base. Mason, OH Cengage Quick, J., & Hall, S. (2015). Part three: The quantitative approach. Journal of Perioperative Practice, 25(10), 192196 6p