You are designing a closed-system, isentropicexpansion process using an ideal gas that operates between the pressure limits of The gases under consideration are hydrogen, nitrogen, air, helium, argon, and carbon dioxide. Which of these gases will produce the greatest amount of work? Which will require the least amount of work in a compression process?
3.7.16 • Theory of Mind o Persons theory of what other people might be thinking § Emotions, goals, intentions, desires, knowledge, beliefs, etc. o It requires the realization that people’s thoughts are unique and personal o It develops considerably around age 4 § Better at lying once theory of mind has developed § Children with autism have trouble with TofM (can’t relate to others or themselves) o The development of Theory of Mind is influenced by: § Language ability – those with more advanced language ability develop it earlier § Siblings: people with siblings tend to have better theory of mind • To figure out motives § Brain maturation – theory of mind is associated with prefrontal cortex maturity § Culture – individuals in collectivist cultures, like China, develop TofM earlier • Chinese children have been found to be about 6 months ahead than children from the U.S. in TofM Is early childhood a critical or sensitive period for language development Sensitive • Language o Average 2 year old knows 500 words; the average 6 year old knows more than 10,000 (so they are learning 6-‐7 new words per day!) o Fast mapping – speedy and imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to the words perceived meaning § Categorical link new words based on context they are used • Language Strengths and Weaknesses o Nouns (names of objects and people) are easy o Time, place, metaphors, articles (a, an, the) are difficult § 10 min, come here, an elephant o basic word order understood by age 2 (subject/verb/object) § I play with trucks instead of “Trucks I play with” o Plurals, possessives, past tense used by age 3 § “My blanket,” “my blankets” o Overregularization – applying grammar rules even when exceptions occur § He “goed” to the store § Foots • Improving Language o SES is related to language § Lower SES shows impoverished language because they spend less time speaking to their children; § Not a direct result from low SES, its more of an interaction problem o Spending more time speaking with children o Reading to children § Expose them to as much language as possible! • TV o TV is typically considered detrimental to language learning (because the more time spent in front of a TV, the less time you are interacting with your parents). However, … o Watching Sesame Street is related to many positive outcomes including… § Larger vocabularies § Alphabet recitation § Better prepared for school § Reading words • Early Childhood Education o Most 3-‐5 year old in developed nations attend some type of school or preschool o Programs differ in philosophy and goals o Three main types are: § Child-‐centered • Inspired by Piaget and Vygotsky; • Children are free to play and explore with guidance (Piaget) • Children are given a variety of activities and follow their own interest rather than adult direction (Vygotsky) • Montessori Schools – emphasize pride, confidence and achievement through self-‐directed learning activities o Children attending these schools have more advanced pre-‐ reading skills, math skills and Theory of Mind. They have greater concern with fairness, solving conflict and cooperation • Reggio Emilio – children are encouraged to master advanced skills personalized learning. Strong appreciation of the arts § Teacher-‐directed • These programs stress preparation for school o Teach children letters, numbers, shapes, write name o Teach how to sit and listen quietly 2 o Teachers direct the events of the day which are all scheduled o Praise, reinforcement and time-‐outs are used to shape behavior • Children in teacher-‐directed programs display more stress behaviors, less confidence, prefer less challenging tasks and are less advanced in motor, academic, language and social skills 3 3.9.15 • Intervention Programs o Head Start – a free federal program for low-‐income children (since 1965) § Preparing children for school § Nutritional services (healthy and balanced diet) § Health services (i.e. immunizations, remind parents that it is important to take children to the dentist) § Parent involvement (serve of policy councils, help with planning, attend programs on parenting and child development § FREE! o Programs vary in quality and outcomes but generally improve literacy and math skills, oral health and parental responsiveness o Less likely to be placed in special ed classes, more likely to graduate high school • High Quality Programs o Low Child-‐Teacher Ratio: each teacher should be responsible for a max of 8 to 10 children and a max of 14 to 20 in a class (with 2 teachers) o Activities – the curriculum is planned but children select their own activities, working in small groups or individually with a teacher facilitating activities o Qualifications and Licensing – teachers should be well trained, have a degree with specialization in early childhood development or education and facility should be licensed by the state § should be sensitive to child’s emotional needs o Physical Space – classroom should be divided into richly equipped activity areas and there should be fenced outdoor space with play equipment § i.e. Book corner, music area, outdoor space (slides, sandbox, etc.) that is fenced o Parental involvement – should be encouraged Part III: Early Childhood – Psychosocial Development ClickerQ: According to Erikson, the crisis of early childhood (ages 3-‐6) is: Initiative vs. Guilt • Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage Theory o Initative vs. Guilt (3 to 6 years) § Initiative: suggests a sense of purposefulness; eager to tackle new tasks, join in activities and discover what they can do • Patient, reasonable adult guidance can cultivate this feeling § Guilt: overly strict conscious that causes child to feel too much guilt because they have been threatened, criticized and punished excessively by adults • Self-‐Concept o A person’s understanding of who he/she is, incorporating self-‐esteem, physical appearance, personality and various personality traits, such as gender and size § Pre-‐schoolers’ self-‐concept consists of observable characteristics, possessions and everyday behaviors • “I’m Tommy, my favorite toy is my red truck and I like school!” § Warm, sensitive parents, a secure attachment allows children to make choices and praising them for their work help children develop a positive self-‐concept • Allowing them to help load the dishwasher, start the laundry, thanking them for their help allows them to develop positive self-‐ concept • Young children think they are smart, strong, good-‐looking and have high self-‐esteem because they have deluded competence but its okay because it encourages them to try new things • Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation o Intrinsic – a drive to pursue a goal that comes from INSIDE a person (from a need to feel smart or competent or a sense of enjoyment) § Pursuing sports because it makes them feel good to be outside and interact with friends; they feel good o Extrinsic – drive to pursue a goal that arises from the need to have one’s achievement rewarded from an outside source § Parents want them to pursue sports and they do it because they want the praise from that parents; others make them feel good o By nature, children tend to be intrinsically motivated; whether or not people praise them • Experiment on Motivation o Preschool children where given markers and paper and instructed to make a drawing. They were randomly assigned to one of three groups § Group 1 -‐ Given no award for their drawings § Group 2 – Told they would receive an award for their drawings before they had even drawn anything § Group3 – Given an award for their drawings after they were completed but they were not told in advance that they would receive this award. What do you think the researches found B. Children who received the award after the task (but who were not told in advance that they would receive an award) were more 2 likely to want to do the task again and C. Children who were not promised or given awards were more likely to want to do the task again. • Fostering Intrinsic Motivation o Best not to promise rewards for accomplishments o Best to praise children for their effort rather than the outcome or their abilities § “You tried hard! And you did it!” Rather than, “You are so smart, you did it!” • Teaches them their effort rather than their natural skills paid off and encourages them to persist in challenging tasks § Children who are praised for being smart are less likely to persevere in challenging tasks because they want to continue to feel smart and receive praise • Emotional Development o Emotional Regulation: the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed § Many factors contribute to the development of emotional regulation including: • Development of connections between the limbic system (involved in emotion) and prefrontal cortex (involved in impulse control) • Language and ability to verbalize emotions o Children who can’t verbalize emotions are more likely to hit and roll around in anger • Parents – warm, patient parent who model good emotional regulation, recognize and accept their child’s emotions and give strategies for controlling emotions o Parent should not flip out screaming when child flips out because child will see that this is how everybody reacts o Give strategies to handle negative emotions and do it with them (i.e. take deep breaths) • Culture – different cultures value and discourage different emotions o U.S. emotional regulation of fear is taught to be suppressed o Gender – girls tend to be more advanced in emotional regulation than boys • Externalizing and Internalizing Problems o Externalizing – difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts (i.e. kicking, screaming, throwing things, etc.) o Internalizing – difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one’s emotional distress inward (feeling excessively guilty, ashamed or worthless 3 • Prosocial Behaviors o Actions that are helpful and kind but have no obvious benefit to the person performing the action (i.e. expressing concern, offering to share, holding the door open) § First become evident in children ages 2-‐3 § Do not have theory of mind but do understand enough about emotions to respond in a supportive and systematic and sympathetic way § Parental behavior contributes to development of child’s prosocial behavior • Explaining consequences of actions on others (actions have consequences and if you hurt someone, you should feel bad and apologize) • Loving and warm • Reinforce prosocial behavior (“You are so helpful!) • Model prosocial behavior (holding doors for others, don’t dismiss other children; acknowledge other kids, lets make sure other kid is okay) 4 3.11.16 • Antisocial behaviors o Antisocial behaviors: actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive o Instrumental aggression – aimed at gaining something that someone else has (more egocentric than antisocial) o Reactive aggression – an impulsive retaliation for hurt (indicates lack of emotional regulations o Relational aggression – non-‐physical acts aimed at harming social connections o Bullying aggression – unprovoked repeated physical or verbal attacks (sign of poor emotional regulation) • Gender development o 18 to 24 months – children develop their gender identity and begin to show preference for sex-‐stereotyped toys § by 24 months, they can categorize men and women o 3 years – preference for same-‐sex friends, knowledge of sex-‐roles o 3-‐4 years – assign stereotypic occupations, toys and activities to genders o 4 years – gender stability occurs (understanding that people stay the same gender throughout their entire lives) o 5 years – associate certain personality traits with males or females o 6 years – adopt strict gender rules and understand gender constancy (recognition that gender remains that same even though appearance may change) ClickerQ: Which od you think influence the development of gender differences the most A mix of biological and societal factors • Biological Basis of Gender o Sex differences – biological differences between males and females o SRY Gene – directs development of male genitals o Hormones – testosterone and estrogen affect development of body, brain and behavior § Block release of testosterone, animals display more characteristics of female animal and in vice versa o Monkey research – male monkeys preferred wheeled toys § People think that human boys and girls prefer gendered toys due to socialization, however, this monkey research pokes holes into this assumption o David Reimer – male raised as a girl continued to have male gender identity § Committed suicide at the age 38 § Brother developed schizophrenia after having a psychotic break after learning at 14 what his parents had done to his brother o Evolutionary theory – sex differences have evolved § Male ancestors competed for mates (dominance), female ancestors reared children (compliance) naturally selected • Social Basis of Gender o Behaviorism – children are rewarded for “gender-‐appropriate” behavior (and may be ridiculed by their peers for “gender inappropriate” behavior) and parents model these behaviors o Will and Colleagues (1976) – found mothers treated infants differently based on their gender stereotype § People interacted with infants based on the way they were dressed instead of what gender they actually were (“Beth” was given a doll and smiled at, “Ben” was given a train) § Smith and Lloyd (1978) – found that babies dressed in blue were verbally encouraged to participate in more physical play, regardless of the gender of the baby • Play o Erikson regarded play as a means through which young children learn about themselves and their social world o “Play is really the work of childhood” –Fred Rogers o Solitary play – playing on one’s own § Children can be happy in solitary play § Parents did not play with children in the previous generations o Onlooker play – watching other children playing o Parallel play – playing side-‐by-‐side other children 2 § Not interacting with each other o Associative play – pursuing own activities but engaging in spontaneous but short-‐ lived social interactions o Cooperative play – playing together to accomplish a goal § Play house or classroom together o Peers are the best playmates! (Other children) o Sociodramatic play – children act out social roles § Helps them learn how to explain their ideas, practice emotional regulation, develop their self-‐concept and develop social skills § Might pretend to experience different emotions o Rough & tumble and active play – children wrestle and play fight § Helps develop muscle strength, coordination, control (gross motor skills) § Also believed to help children learn to regulate emotion and practice social skills • Might help antisocial behavior because they test their limits together 3