What are functionalized hydrocarbons? Give an example of a functionalized hydrocarbon.
CH331 Unit 1: Electronic Structure and Bonding Week 1 Distribution of Electrons in an Atom Pauli Exclusion Principle : a) no more than two electrons can occupy each atomic orbital b) the two electrons must be opposite spin Hund’s Rule : when there are two degenerate orbitals an electron will occupy an empty orbital before it will pair another electron Core electrons : electrons in inner shells that do not participate in chemical bonding Valence electrons : electrons in the outermost shell that participate in chemical bonding Ionic and Covalent Bond Bond : an attractive force between two atoms or between ions Ionic Bond : a) formed when there is a transfer of electrons, causing one atom to become a positively charged ion and the other to become a negatively charged ion. Here there is an electrostatic attractive force between particles of opposite charge. b) Metal + Nonmetal Eg : LiCl, NaF, Ca2 Covalent Bond : a) a bond formed as a result of sharing electrons. b) Nonmetal + Nonmetal 2, H2, HCl, H2O, NH 3, CH 4 Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds Electronegativity : is a measure of the ability of an atom to pull the boding electron towards itself. Fluorine is the most electronegative, whereas Potassium is the least