(a) What fraction of Earth’s diameter is the greatest ocean depth? (b) The greatest mountain height?
Weather and Climate with Ron Jackson Chapter 1 Atmosphere – thin envelope around the Earth, containing: 78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen (1% Other) Balance of Destruction and Production of Gases Nitrogen: removed by soil bacteria/ returned by decaying life Oxygen: removed when organic matter decays Returned by photosynthesis of Plants Water Vapor - Invisible – High in Tropics & Low at Poles – releases latent heat Condensation: water vapor to fluid Evaporation: liquid to water vapor Carbon Dioxide: natural component of atmosphere; from decay of plant matter, volcanic eruptions, burning fossil fuels, deforestation The Early Atmosphere – was mostly Hydrogen & Helium (4.6 Billion years ago) Outgassing: steady outpouring of gases from hot surface, provided water vapor and thus clouds; rainfall for thousands of years -Vertical structure- notice later how the layers graphically zig-zag as temp. fluctauates with height increase Density: mass of atoms and molecules; amount of space between them; pressure force divided by area Both air pressure and air density decrease with Height -air pressure, or atmospheric pressure is amount of force exerted over an area -milibar is the most common unit of pressure on weather maps. Also used as inches of mercury. At sea level average Layers of the Atmosphere Temperature