Calculate the energy needed to accelerate a spaceshipof mass 10,000 kg to a speed of 0.3c for intergalacticspace exploration. Compare this with a projected annualenergy usage on Earth of 1021 J.
Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 3 Notes- Part 2 by Mehrnaz Ighani . Osmosis: movement of solvent across a selectively permeable membrane (Fig. 3.7d) Water diffuses through plasma membranes: 1. Though the lipid bilayer 2. Through specific water channels called aquaporins (AQPs) . Osmolarity: measure of total concentration of solute particles . Water concentration varies with the number of solute particles because solute particles displace water molecules When solute concentration increases, water concentration decreases and vice versa . Water moves from low solute concentration (high water conc.) to high solute concentration (low water conc.) . Equilibrium: same concentration of solutes and water on both sides with equal volume on both sides When solutions of different osmolarity are separated by a membrane permeable to all molecules, both solutes and water cross membrane until equilibrium is reached. (Fig. 3.8a) When solutions of different osmolarity are separated by a membrane that’s permeable only to water, osmosis will occur (Fig. 3.8b) Same concentration of solutes and water on both sides with unequal volume . Movement of water causes pressures: 1. Hydrostatic pressure: pressure of water inside cell pushing on membrane 2. Osmotic pressure: tendency of water to move into cell by osmosis o High conc. of solutes in the cell leads to high osmotic pressure . Tonicity: ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of cells by altering the cells’ interna