A centrifugal pump operates at 300 rpm to deliver 20 C lubricatingoil. A 15-size, geometrically similar pump delivering 15 C wateris used to model the larger pump. How fast should the smallerpump run? Discuss the accuracy of the result.
BSC2010 Lecture 3 Chapter 2 Cont’d – August 26, 2016 • Of all the chemical bonds, covalent bonds are the strongest • Macromolecules: large molecules formed by covalent linkages of smaller molecules • There are 4 kinds of macromolecules found in living organisms: proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids • Polymers are broken in reactions caused by water • Condensation: the removal of water creates a covalent bond between monomers • Hydrolysis: the addition of water breaks a covalent bond between monomers • Carbohydrates: large molecules with similar compounds but differ in several properties • Oligosaccharides: composed of several monosaccharides • Polysaccharides: large polymers containing monosaccharides; the chains can be branching • Lipids: composed of hydrocarbons; insoluble in water because of the nonpolar covalent bonds • When close together, weak but additive van der Waals interactions hold them together. • Functions: stores energy, plays structural role in cell membranes, and thermal insulation • Triglycerides: fats are solid, and oils are liquid at room temperature; have very little polarity and are hydrophobic • They are made of fatty acids • Synthesis: 3 condensation reactions • Saturated fatty acids: bonds between carbon atoms are single; they are saturated with hydrogen • Unsaturated fatty acids: hydrocarbon chains contain one or more double bonds • Fatty acids are amphipathic: they have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail • It takes a lot of energy to break a chemical bond • The stronger the bond, the more energy is rele