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Solutions for Chapter 3.1: Substances Are Made of Atoms

Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2006 | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780030391071 | Authors: R. Thomas Myers, Keith B. Oldham, Salvatore Tocci

Full solutions for Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2006 | 1st Edition

ISBN: 9780030391071

Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2006 | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780030391071 | Authors: R. Thomas Myers, Keith B. Oldham, Salvatore Tocci

Solutions for Chapter 3.1: Substances Are Made of Atoms

Chapter 3.1: Substances Are Made of Atoms includes 9 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2006 was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780030391071. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2006, edition: 1. Since 9 problems in chapter 3.1: Substances Are Made of Atoms have been answered, more than 46568 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • addition polymers

    Polymers that are formed via cationic addition, anionic addition, or free-radical addition.

  • antibonding molecular orbital.

    A molecular orbital that is of higher energy and lower stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. (10.6)

  • Brønsted base.

    A substance capable of accepting a proton. (4.3)

  • Brønsted-Lowry acid

    A compound that can serve as a proton donor.

  • Carbohydrate

    A polyhydroxyaldehyde, a polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis.

  • combustion reaction.

    A reaction in which a substance reacts with oxygen, usually with the release of heat and light, to produce a flame. (4.4)

  • Conjugation

    A situation in which two multiple bonds are separated by a single bond. Alternatively, a series of overlapping 2p orbitals. 1,3-butadiene, for example, is a conjugated diene, and 3-butene-2-one is a conjugated enone

  • Estrogen

    A steroid hormone, such as estrone and estradiol, that mediates the development of sexual characteristics in females.

  • Exergonic reaction

    A reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is lower than that of the reactants. The position of equilibrium for an exergonic reaction favors products.

  • first law of thermodynamics

    A statement that energy is conserved in any process. One way to express the law is that the change in internal energy, ?E, of a system in any process is equal to the heat, q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings: ?E = q + w. (Section 5.2)

  • Frequency

    The number of full cycles of a wave that pass a given point in a second, and reported in hertz (Hz), which has the units s21

  • geminal

    Two groups connected to the same carbon atom. For example, a geminal dihalide is a compound with two halogens connected to the same carbon atom.

  • Heterocycle

    A cyclic compound whose ring contains more than one kind of atom. Oxirane (ethylene oxide), for example, is a heterocycle whose ring contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

  • Hyperconjugation

    Interaction of electrons in a s-bonding orbital with the vacant 2p orbital of an adjacent positively charged carbon.

  • joule (J)

    The SI unit of energy, 1 kg@m2 >s2. A related unit is the calorie: 4.184 J = 1 cal. (Section 5.1)

  • lattice points

    Points in a crystal all of which have identical environments. (Section 12.2)

  • nucleosides

    The product formed when either d-ribose or 2-deoxy-d-ribose is coupled with certain nitrogen heterocycles (called bases).

  • Octet rule

    Group 1A–7A elements react to achieve an outer shell of eight valence electrons.

  • soluble

    A term used to indicate that a certain volume of a compound will dissolve in a specified amount of a liquid at room temperature.

  • step-growth polymers

    Polymers that are formed under conditions in which the individual monomers react with each other to form oligomers, which are then joined together to form polymers.

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