- 188.8.131.52.1: What is the atomic theory?
- 184.108.40.206.2: What is a compound?
- 220.127.116.11.3: State the laws of definite proportions, conservation of mass, and m...
- 18.104.22.168.4: According to Dalton, what is the difference between an element and ...
- 22.214.171.124.5: What are the five principles of Daltons atomic theory?
- 126.96.36.199.6: Which of Daltons five principles still apply to the structure of an...
- 188.8.131.52.7: What law is described by the fact that carbon dioxide consists of 2...
- 184.108.40.206.8: What law is described by the fact that the ratio of the mass of oxy...
- 220.127.116.11.9: Three compounds contain the elements sulfur, S, and fluorine, F. Ho...
Solutions for Chapter 3.1: Substances Are Made of Atoms
Full solutions for Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2006 | 1st Edition
Polymers that are formed via cationic addition, anionic addition, or free-radical addition.
antibonding molecular orbital.
A molecular orbital that is of higher energy and lower stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. (10.6)
A substance capable of accepting a proton. (4.3)
A compound that can serve as a proton donor.
A polyhydroxyaldehyde, a polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis.
A reaction in which a substance reacts with oxygen, usually with the release of heat and light, to produce a flame. (4.4)
A situation in which two multiple bonds are separated by a single bond. Alternatively, a series of overlapping 2p orbitals. 1,3-butadiene, for example, is a conjugated diene, and 3-butene-2-one is a conjugated enone
A steroid hormone, such as estrone and estradiol, that mediates the development of sexual characteristics in females.
A reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is lower than that of the reactants. The position of equilibrium for an exergonic reaction favors products.
first law of thermodynamics
A statement that energy is conserved in any process. One way to express the law is that the change in internal energy, ?E, of a system in any process is equal to the heat, q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings: ?E = q + w. (Section 5.2)
The number of full cycles of a wave that pass a given point in a second, and reported in hertz (Hz), which has the units s21
Two groups connected to the same carbon atom. For example, a geminal dihalide is a compound with two halogens connected to the same carbon atom.
A cyclic compound whose ring contains more than one kind of atom. Oxirane (ethylene oxide), for example, is a heterocycle whose ring contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
Interaction of electrons in a s-bonding orbital with the vacant 2p orbital of an adjacent positively charged carbon.
The SI unit of energy, 1 kg@m2 >s2. A related unit is the calorie: 4.184 J = 1 cal. (Section 5.1)
Points in a crystal all of which have identical environments. (Section 12.2)
The product formed when either d-ribose or 2-deoxy-d-ribose is coupled with certain nitrogen heterocycles (called bases).
Group 1A–7A elements react to achieve an outer shell of eight valence electrons.
A term used to indicate that a certain volume of a compound will dissolve in a specified amount of a liquid at room temperature.
Polymers that are formed under conditions in which the individual monomers react with each other to form oligomers, which are then joined together to form polymers.