- 18.104.22.168.1: What is the main distinction between ionic and covalent bonding?
- 22.214.171.124.2: How is electronegativity used in determining the ionic or covalent ...
- 126.96.36.199.3: What type of bonding would be expected between the following atoms?...
- 188.8.131.52.4: List the three pairs of atoms referred to in the previous question ...
- 184.108.40.206.5: INTERPRETING CONCEPTS Compare the following two pairs of atoms: Cu ...
- 220.127.116.11.6: INFERRING RELATIONSHIPS The isolated K atom is larger than the isol...
Solutions for Chapter 6.1: Introduction toChemical Bonding
Full solutions for Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition
acid-dissociation constant (Ka)
An equilibrium constant that expresses the extent to which an acid transfers a proton to solvent water. (Section 16.6)
An equation that relates the rate constant for a reaction to the frequency factor, A, the activation energy, Ea, and the temperature, T: k = Ae-Ea>RT. In its logarithmic form it is written ln k = -Ea>RT + ln A. (Section 14.5)
A proton acceptor
The potential difference between the cathode and anode in an electrochemical cell; it is measured in volts: 1 V = 1 J>C. Also called electromotive force. (Section 20.4)
A molecule containing two amino acid units joined by a peptide bond
The branch of chemistry that deals with the relationships between electricity and chemical reactions. (Chapter 20: Introduction)
Any process with a positive DH (the system receives energy from the surroundings).
The measure of disorder associated with a system.
The numerical value of the equilibrium-constant expression for a system at equilibrium. The equilibrium constant is most usually denoted by Kp for gas-phase systems or Kc for solution-phase systems. (Section 15.2)
Materials that do not conduct electricity. (Section 12.7)
Isoelectric point (pI)
The pH at which an amino acid, polypeptide, or protein has no net charge
A collection of Avogadro’s number 16.022 * 10232 of objects; for example, a mole of H2O is 6.022 * 1023 H2O molecules. (Section 3.4)
The product formed when either d-ribose or 2-deoxy-d-ribose is coupled with certain nitrogen heterocycles (called bases).
parts per billion (ppb)
The concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 109 (billion) grams of solution; equals micrograms of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions. (Section 13.4)
Reversibly creating an unreactive group for the purpose of preventing a functional group from potentially reacting to give an unwanted product or products
The slowest elementary step in a reaction mechanism. (Section 14.6)
A term used to indicate that exactly three alkyl groups are attached directly to a particular position. For example, a tertiary carbocation has three alkyl groups attached directly to the electrophilic carbon atom (C+).
Cleavage by heating
A process that involves the removal of a carbon atom from an aldose. The aldehyde group is first converted to a cyanohydrin, followed by loss of HCN in the presence of a base.
Z (Section 5.2C)
From the German, zusammen, meaning opposite. Specifi es that groups of higher priority on the carbons of a double bond are on the same side