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Solutions for Chapter 7.2: Oxidation Numbers
Full solutions for Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition
The product obtained from 1,4-addition across a conjugated p system.
A peroxide for which each oxygen atom is connected to an acyl group. Acyl peroxides are often used as radical initiators, because the O!O bond is especially weak.
An equation that uses chemical symbols to show what happens during a chemical reaction. (3.7)
A notation that uses chemical symbols with numerical subscripts to convey the relative proportions of atoms of the different elements in a substance. (Section 2.6)
A nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction in which the nucleophile is an ester enolate and the electrophile is an ester.
complete ionic equation
A chemical equation in which dissolved strong electrolytes (such as dissolved ionic compounds) are written as separate ions. (Section 4.2)
A ratio relating the same quantity in two systems of units that is used to convert the units of measurement. (Section 1.6)
crystalline solid (crystal)
A solid whose internal arrangement of atoms, molecules, or ions possesses a regularly repeating pattern in any direction through the solid. (Section 12.2)
electrostatic potential maps
A three-dimensional, rainbowlike image used to visualize partial charges in a compound.
A state of a system at higher energy than the ground state.
The region of an IR spectrum that contains signals resulting from the vibrational excitation of most single bonds (stretching and bending).
A reaction that involves the addition of X2 (either Br2 or Cl2) across an alkene.
heat of reaction
The heat given off during a reaction.
The equilibrium established between substances in two or more different phases, for example, between a gas and a solid or between a solid and a liquid. (Section 15.4)
When orbitals of equal energy are available but there are not enough electrons to fi ll all of them completely, one electron is put in each before a second electron is added to any
A substance formed in one elementary step of a multistep mechanism and consumed in another; it is neither a reactant nor an ultimate product of the overall reaction. (Section 14.6)
During the polymerization process, compounds constructed from just a few monomers.
The arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number, with elements having similar properties placed in vertical columns. (Section 2.5)
The conversion of a ketone or aldehyde into an imine under conditions in which the imine is reduced as soon as it is formed, giving an amine.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
A ribonucleic acid found in ribosomes, the sites of protein synthesi
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