Solutions for Chapter 4.22: SUMMARY
Full solutions for Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes | 4th Edition
Rainwater that has become excessively acidic because of absorption of pollutant oxides, notably SO3, produced by human activities. (Section 18.2)
A substance that yields hydrogen ions (H1) when dissolved in water. (2.7)
The amount of product actually obtained in a reaction. (3.10)
An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure. (5.2)
bonding molecular orbital.
A molecular orbital that is of lower energy and greater stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. (10.6)
changes of state
Transformations of matter from one state to a different one, for example, from a gas to a liquid. (Section 1.3)
Atoms that lie in the same plane.
An eliminationreaction in which the leaving group only leavesafter deprotonation occurs. This process occurs atthe end of an aldol condensation.
The use of electrolysis to reduce or refine metals. (Section 20.9)
A substance that consists of a single enantiomer, and not its mirror image.
energy of activation
In an energy diagram, the height of the energy barrier (the hump) between the reactants and the products.
A measure of the exchange of energy between the system and its surroundings during any process.
A thermodynamic function associated with the number of different equivalent energy states or spatial arrangements in which a system may be found. It is a thermodynamic state function, which means that once we specify the conditions for a system—that is, the temperature, pressure, and so on—the entropy is defined. (Section 19.2)
A cyclic ether containing a three-membered ring system. Also called an oxirane (also see Sect. 14.7).
London dispersion forces
Attractive forces between transient dipole moments, observed in alkanes.
A device inwhich a compound is first vaporized and convertedinto ions, which are then separated anddetected.
A carbohydrate that is oxidized upon treatment with Tollens’ reagent, Fehling’s reagent, or Benedict’s reagent.
The gain of electrons. Alternatively, either the gain of hydrogen, loss of oxygen, or both
standard emf, also called the standard cell potential 1E°2
The emf of a cell when all reagents are at standard conditions. (Section 20.4)
The threedimensional shape of a protein.
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