- 17.11.37: Hydration of an aldehyde can also be catalyzed by hydroxide ion. Pr...
- 17.11.38: Which ketone forms the most hydrate in an aqueous solution?
- 17.11.39: When trichloroacetaldehyde is dissolved in water, almost all of it ...
Solutions for Chapter 17.11: The Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones with Water
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 7th Edition
Specific site on a heterogeneous catalyst or an enzyme where catalysis occurs. (Section 14.7)
An organic compound containing at least one halogen.
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed. (13.6)
The lowest energy conformation for cyclohexane, in which all bond angles are fairly close to 109.5° and all hydrogen atoms are staggered.
A reaction involving loss of CO2, characteristic of compounds containing a carbonyl group that is beta to a COOH group.
A state of balance in which opposing processes occur at the same rate. (Section 11.5)
A measure of the ability of an atom that is bonded to another atom to attract electrons to itself. (Section 8.4)
A reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is lower than that of the reactants. The position of equilibrium for an exergonic reaction favors products.
A catalyst that is in the same phase as the reactant substances. (Section 14.7)
A twostep process that achieves an anti-Markovnikov addition of a proton and a hydroxyl group (OH) across an alkene.
A bond that results from the force of attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom when the atom is in its ground state. (Section 7.4)
The nucleophile in a Michael reaction.
Compounds formed from a molecule of phosphoric acid, a sugar molecule, and an organic nitrogen base. Nucleotides form linear polymers called DNA and RNA, which are involved in protein synthesis and cell reproduction. (Section 24.10)
The net movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane toward the solution with greater solute concentration. (Section 13.5)
A measure of the decrease in concentration of a reactant or the increase in concentration of a product with time. (Section 14.2)
The conversion of a ketone or aldehyde into an imine under conditions in which the imine is reduced as soon as it is formed, giving an amine.
A process that can go back and forth between states along exactly the same path; a system at equilibrium is reversible if equilibrium can be shifted by an infinitesimal modification of a variable such as temperature. (Section 19.1)
A phenomenon observed most commonly for nonequivalent protons connected to adjacent carbon atoms, in which the multiplicity of each signal is affected by the other.
A solution prepared by dissolving Ag2O in aqueous ammonia; used for selective oxidation of an aldehyde to a carboxylic acid.