Solutions for Chapter 18.5: Halogenation of the a-Carbon of Carboxylic Acids: The HellVolhardZelinski Reaction
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 7th Edition
Solutions for Chapter 18.5: Halogenation of the a-Carbon of Carboxylic Acids: The HellVolhardZelinski ReactionGet Full Solutions
An organic compound obtained by substituting a hydroxyl group 1¬OH2 for a hydrogen on a hydrocarbon. (Sections 2.9 and 24.4)
An aldol addition followed by dehydration to give an a,bunsaturated ketone or aldehyde.
A compound containing a Cl group and a hydroxyl group (OH) on adjacent carbon atoms.
Compounds with the same molecular formula but a different connectivity of their atoms
When two waves interact with each other in a way that produces a wave with a larger amplitude.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A polynucleotide in which the sugar component is deoxyribose. (Section 24.10)
electrophilic aromatic substitution
A substitution reaction in which an aromatic proton is replaced by an electrophile and the aromatic moiety is preserved.
A thermodynamic function associated with the number of different equivalent energy states or spatial arrangements in which a system may be found. It is a thermodynamic state function, which means that once we specify the conditions for a system—that is, the temperature, pressure, and so on—the entropy is defined. (Section 19.2)
first law of thermodynamics
A statement that energy is conserved in any process. One way to express the law is that the change in internal energy, ?E, of a system in any process is equal to the heat, q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings: ?E = q + w. (Section 5.2)
heterolytic bond cleavage
Bond breaking that results in the formation of ions.
A special type of dipole-dipole interaction that occurs between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom that is connected to another electronegative atom.
A compound capable offunctioning as an electron pair acceptor.
The percent of a substance that undergoes ionization on dissolution in water. The term applies to solutions of weak acids and bases. (Section 16.6)
probability density 1c22
A value that represents the probability that an electron will be found at a given point in space. Also called electron density. (Section 6.5)
radial probability function
The probability that the electron will be found at a certain distance from the nucleus. (Section 6.6)
A process in which a substance gains one or more electrons. (Section 4.4)
The combination of a Michael addition followed by an aldol condensation to form a ring.
smectic liquid crystalline phase
A liquid crystal in which the molecules are aligned along their long axes and arranged in sheets, with the ends of the molecules aligned. There are several different kinds of smectic phases. (Section 12.8)
An excellent leaving group (OTs). transition state (Sect. 6.6): A state through which a reaction passes. On an energy diagram, a transition state corresponds with a local maximum.
van der Waals forces
A group of intermolecular attractive forces including dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, and induced dipole-induced dipole (dispersion) forces