Solutions for Chapter 18.5: Halogenation of the a-Carbon of Carboxylic Acids: The HellVolhardZelinski Reaction
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 7th Edition
Solutions for Chapter 18.5: Halogenation of the a-Carbon of Carboxylic Acids: The HellVolhardZelinski ReactionGet Full Solutions
A reaction in which bonds are broken in the presence of an acid. For example, in the presence of a strong acid, an ether is converted into two alkyl halides.
The resonancestabilized, cationic intermediate of a Friedel-Crafts acylation, formed by treating an acyl halide with aluminum trichloride.
Any reaction in which a new carbon-carbon bond to an alkyl group is formed.
The positions that are adjacent to the vinylic positions of a carboncarbon double bond.
axis of symmetry
An axis about which a compound possesses rotational symmetry.
A substance (molecule or ion) that acts as a proton acceptor. (Section 16.2)
The process by which a liquid rises in a tube because of a combination of adhesion to the walls of the tube and cohesion between liquid particles. (Section 11.3)
The number of adjacent atoms to which an atom is directly bonded. In a complex the coordination number of the metal ion is the number of donor atoms to which it is bonded. (Sections 12.37 and 24.2)
An elimination reaction involving the loss of H and a halogen (such as Cl, Br, or I).
The transition of an electron in a transition-metal compound from a lower-energy d orbital to a higher-energy d orbital. (Section 23.6)
law of mass action
The rules by which the equilibrium constant is expressed in terms of the concentrations of reactants and products, in accordance with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. (Section 15.2)
London dispersion forces
Attractive forces between transient dipole moments, observed in alkanes.
the number of degrees through which a compound rotates the plane of polarized light
oxidation number (oxidation state)
A positive or negative whole number assigned to an element in a molecule or ion on the basis of a set of formal rules; to some degree it reflects the positive or negative character of that atom. (Section 4.4)
The arrangement of polypeptide monomers into a noncovalently bonded aggregate.
An equation thatdescribes the relationship between the rate of a reactionand the concentration of reactants.
A conformation of a conjugated diene in which the disposition of the two p bonds with regard to the connecting single bond is cis-like (a dihedral angle of 0°).
Matter that has both a definite shape and a definite volume. (Section 1.2)
A name that is assigned using the rules of IUPAC nomenclature.
Williamson ether synthesis
A general method for the synthesis of dialkyl ethers by an SN2 reaction between a haloalkane and an alkoxide ion.
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