- 21.5.9: Show how an enediol rearrangement can move the carbonyl carbon of f...
- 21.5.10: Write the mechanism for the base-catalyzed conversion of d -fructos...
- 21.5.11: When d -tagatose is added to a basic aqueous solution, an equilibri...
Solutions for Chapter 21.5: The Reactions of Monosaccharides in Basic Solutions
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 7th Edition
Element in which the 5f orbitals are only partially occupied. (Section 6.8)
A type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle and thereby transforms (or “decays”) into an atom with a mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. (Section 21.1)
Carbohydrate derivatives in which an OH group has been replaced with an amino group.
The mass of an atom in atomic mass units. (3.1)
An estimate of the size of an atom. See bonding atomic radius. (Section 7.3)
Phosphoglycerides that contain ethanolamine.
critical pressure (Pc).
The minimum pressure necessary to bring about liquefaction at the critical temperature. (11.8)
The process of forming a diazonium salt by treating a primary amine with NaNO2 and HCl.
A charge associated with any atom that does not exhibit the appropriate number of valence electrons.
glass transition temperature (Tg)
The temperature at which noncrystalline polymers become very soft.
An equation for either an oxidation or a reduction that explicitly shows the electrons involved, for example, Zn2 + 1aq2 + 2 e- ¡ Zn1s2. (Section 20.2)
A compound containing a hydroxyl group (OH) and an alkoxy group (OR) connected to the same carbon atom.
Solids that are composed of ions. (Section 12.1)
The extent to which an element exhibits the physical and chemical properties characteristic of metals, for example, luster, malleability, ductility, and good thermal and electrical conductivity. (Section 7.6)
The study of which frequencies of radiation are absorbed or emitted by a particular substance and the correlation of these frequencies with details of molecular structure.
A naturally occurring combustible liquid composed of hundreds of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. (Section 5.8)
Rate determining step
The step in a multistep reaction sequence that crosses the highest energy barrier.
A reaction in which a compound undergoes a decrease in oxidation state.
Cleavage by heating
A net neutral compound that exhibits charge separation. Amino acids exist as zwitterions at physiological pH.