- 20.7SE.1PE: Determining Half-Reactions at Electrodes and Calculating Cell Poten...
- 20.7SE.2PE: Determining Half-Reactions at Electrodes and Calculating Cell Poten...
Solutions for Chapter 20.7SE: Chemistry: The Central Science 13th Edition
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition
An object that lacks chirality; an object that has no handedness
An OR group.
The positively charged, resonance-stabilized, intermediate of anelectrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Also called a sigma complex.
Orbitals fi ll in order of increasing energy, from lowest to highest.
A reaction for which the reagent necessary to catalyze the reaction is produced by the reaction itself.
bonding atomic radius
The radius of an atom as defined by the distances separating it from other atoms to which it is chemically bonded. (Section 7.3)
The cycle that relates lattice energies of ionic compounds to ionization energies, electron affinities, heats of sublimation and formation, and bond enthalpies. (9.3)
A CRO bond. carboxylic acid derivative (Sect. 21.6): A compound that is similar in structure to a carboxylic acid (RCOOH) but the OH group of the carboxylic acid has been replaced with a different group, Z, where Z is a heteroatom such as Cl, O, N, etc. Nitriles (R!C#N) are also considered to be carboxylic acid derivatives because they have the same oxidation state as carboxylic acids.
Any three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule that results from rotation about a single bond.
conjugate acid-base pair.
An acid and its conjugate base or a base and its conjugate acid. (15.1)
The process of separating compounds on the basis of their electric charge
electrostatic potential maps
A three-dimensional, rainbowlike image used to visualize partial charges in a compound.
The steric interaction that results when two groups in a Newman projection are separated by a dihedral angle of 60°.
The short-range attractive forces operating between the particles that make up the units of a liquid or solid substance. These same forces also cause gases to liquefy or solidify at low temperatures and high pressures. (Chapter 11: Introduction)
The energy required to separate completely the ions in an ionic solid. (Section 8.2)
law of mass action
The rules by which the equilibrium constant is expressed in terms of the concentrations of reactants and products, in accordance with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. (Section 15.2)
The closeness of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility of a measurement. (Section 1.5)
A process that is capable of proceeding in a given direction, as written or described, without needing to be driven by an outside source of energy. A process may be spontaneous even though it is very slow. (Section 19.1)
A protein used to transport molecules or ions from one location to another. Hemoglobin is a classic example of a transport protein, used to transport molecular oxygen from the lungs to all the tissues of the body.
For mechanisms, astep that involves only one chemical entity.
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