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Geometry 1st Edition - Solutions by Chapter

Full solutions for Geometry | 1st Edition

ISBN: 9780395977279

Geometry | 1st Edition - Solutions by Chapter

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Geometry, edition: 1. Since problems from 14 chapters in Geometry have been answered, more than 2726 students have viewed full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem in Geometry were answered by , our top Math solution expert on 03/14/18, 05:28PM. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters: 14. Geometry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780395977279.

Key Math Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Cholesky factorization

    A = CTC = (L.J]))(L.J]))T for positive definite A.

  • Cofactor Cij.

    Remove row i and column j; multiply the determinant by (-I)i + j •

  • Complex conjugate

    z = a - ib for any complex number z = a + ib. Then zz = Iz12.

  • Condition number

    cond(A) = c(A) = IIAIlIIA-III = amaxlamin. In Ax = b, the relative change Ilox III Ilx II is less than cond(A) times the relative change Ilob III lib II· Condition numbers measure the sensitivity of the output to change in the input.

  • Cross product u xv in R3:

    Vector perpendicular to u and v, length Ilullllvlll sin el = area of parallelogram, u x v = "determinant" of [i j k; UI U2 U3; VI V2 V3].

  • Dimension of vector space

    dim(V) = number of vectors in any basis for V.

  • Distributive Law

    A(B + C) = AB + AC. Add then multiply, or mUltiply then add.

  • Elimination matrix = Elementary matrix Eij.

    The identity matrix with an extra -eij in the i, j entry (i #- j). Then Eij A subtracts eij times row j of A from row i.

  • Fundamental Theorem.

    The nullspace N (A) and row space C (AT) are orthogonal complements in Rn(perpendicular from Ax = 0 with dimensions rand n - r). Applied to AT, the column space C(A) is the orthogonal complement of N(AT) in Rm.

  • Graph G.

    Set of n nodes connected pairwise by m edges. A complete graph has all n(n - 1)/2 edges between nodes. A tree has only n - 1 edges and no closed loops.

  • Hermitian matrix A H = AT = A.

    Complex analog a j i = aU of a symmetric matrix.

  • Incidence matrix of a directed graph.

    The m by n edge-node incidence matrix has a row for each edge (node i to node j), with entries -1 and 1 in columns i and j .

  • Independent vectors VI, .. " vk.

    No combination cl VI + ... + qVk = zero vector unless all ci = O. If the v's are the columns of A, the only solution to Ax = 0 is x = o.

  • Left inverse A+.

    If A has full column rank n, then A+ = (AT A)-I AT has A+ A = In.

  • Multiplier eij.

    The pivot row j is multiplied by eij and subtracted from row i to eliminate the i, j entry: eij = (entry to eliminate) / (jth pivot).

  • Rank r (A)

    = number of pivots = dimension of column space = dimension of row space.

  • Symmetric matrix A.

    The transpose is AT = A, and aU = a ji. A-I is also symmetric.

  • Trace of A

    = sum of diagonal entries = sum of eigenvalues of A. Tr AB = Tr BA.

  • Transpose matrix AT.

    Entries AL = Ajj. AT is n by In, AT A is square, symmetric, positive semidefinite. The transposes of AB and A-I are BT AT and (AT)-I.

  • Vector space V.

    Set of vectors such that all combinations cv + d w remain within V. Eight required rules are given in Section 3.1 for scalars c, d and vectors v, w.

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