 15.1COQ: Fossilfuel electric generating plants produce “thermal pollution.”...
 15.1MCQ: In an isobaric compression of an ideal gas,(a) no heat flows into t...
 15.1P: (I) An ideal gas expands isothermally, performing 4.30 X 103 J of w...
 15.1Q: In an isothermal process, 3700 J of work is done by an ideal gas. I...
 15.1SL: What happens to the internal energy of water vapor in the air that ...
 15.2MCQ: Which is possible: converting (i) 100 J of work entirely into 100 J...
 15.2P: (I) One liter of air is cooled at constant pressure until its volum...
 15.2Q: Can mechanical energy ever be transformed completely into heat or i...
 15.2SL: Draw a PV diagram for an ideal gas which undergoes a threestep cyc...
 15.3MCQ: An ideal gas undergoes an isobaric compression and then an isovolum...
 15.3P: (II) Sketch a PV diagram of the following process: 2.5 L of ideal g...
 15.3Q: Can the temperature of a system remain constant even though heat fl...
 15.3SL: What exactly is a Carnot engine and why is it important? How practi...
 15.4MCQ: An ideal gas undergoes an isothermal expansion fromstate A to state...
 15.4P: (II) A gas is enclosed in a cylinder fitted with a light frictionle...
 15.4Q: Explain why the temperature of a gas increases when it is compresse...
 15.4SL: (a) Make up an advertisement for a refrigerator or air conditioner ...
 15.5MCQ: An ideal gas undergoes an isothermal process. Which of the followin...
 15.5P: (II) A 1.0L volume of air initially at 3.5 atm of (gauge) pressure...
 15.5Q: An ideal monatomic gas expands slowly to twice its volume (1) isoth...
 15.5SL: One day a person sleeps for 7.0 h, goes running for an hour, gets d...
 15.6MCQ: An ideal gas undergoes an adiabatic expansion, a process in which n...
 15.6P: (II) The pressure in an ideal gas is cut in half slowly, while bein...
 15.6Q: (a) What happens if you remove the lid of a bottle containing chlor...
 15.6SL: A particular 1.5 m2 photovoltaic panel operating in direct sunlight...
 15.7MCQ: A heat engine operates between a high temperature of about 600°C an...
 15.7P: (II) In an engine, an almost ideal gas is compressed adiabatically ...
 15.7Q: Would a definition of heat engine efficiency as e = W/QL be useful?...
 15.7SL: A dehumidifier removes water vapor from air and has been referred t...
 15.8MCQ: On a very hot day, could you cool your kitchen by leaving the refri...
 15.8P: (II) An ideal gas expands at a constant total pressure of 3.0 atm f...
 15.8Q: What are the hightemperature and the lowtemperature areas for (a)...
 15.9MCQ: Which of the following possibilities could increase the efficiency ...
 15.9P: (II) 8.5 moles of an ideal monatomic gas expand adiabatically, perf...
 15.9Q: The oceans contain a tremendous amount of thermal (internal) energy...
 15.10MCQ: About what percentage of the heat produced by burning gasoline is t...
 15.10P: (II) Consider the following twostep process. Heat is allowed to fl...
 15.10Q: Can you warm a kitchen in winter by leaving the oven door open? Can...
 15.11MCQ: Which statement is true regarding the entropy change of an ice cube...
 15.11Q: The COPs are defined differently for heat pumps and air conditioner...
 15.12P: (III) The PV diagram in Fig. 15–23 shows two possible states of a s...
 15.12Q: You are asked to test a machine that the inventor calls an “inroom...
 15.13Q: Think up several processes (other than those already mentioned) tha...
 15.14P: (I) How much energy would the person of Example 15–7 transform if i...
 15.14Q: Suppose a lot of papers are strewn all over the floor; then you sta...
 15.15EA: What would be the internal energy change in Example 15–1 if 2500 J ...
 15.15EB: Is the work done by the gas in process ADB of Fig. 15–6 greater tha...
 15.15EC: In Example 15–4, if the heat lost from the gas in the process BD is...
 15.15ED: A motor is running with an intake temperature Which of the followin...
 15.15EE: Return to the ChapterOpening Question, page 412, and answer it aga...
 15.15EG: In the Table above, what is the probability that there will be at l...
 15.15P: (I) Calculate the average metabolic rate of a 65kg person who slee...
 15.15Q: The first law of thermodynamics is sometimes whimsically stated as,...
 15.16P: (II) A 65kg person decides to lose weight by sleeping one hour les...
 15.16Q: A gas is allowed to expand (a) adiabatically and (b) isothermally. ...
 15.17P: (II) (a) How much energy is transformed by a typical 65kg person w...
 15.17Q: Which do you think has the greater entropy, 1 kg of solid iron or 1...
 15.18P: (I) A heat engine exhausts 8200 J of heat while performing 2600 J o...
 15.18Q: Give three examples, other than those mentioned in this Chapter, of...
 15.19P: (I) What is the maximum efficiency of a heat engine whose operating...
 15.19Q: Entropy is often called “time’s arrow” because it tells us in which...
 15.20P: (I) The exhaust temperature of a heat engine is 230°C.What is the h...
 15.20Q: Living organisms, as they grow, convert relatively simple food mole...
 15.21P: (I) A heat engine does 9200 J of work per cycle while absorbing 25....
 15.22P: (I) A heat engine’s high temperature TH could be ambient temperatur...
 15.23P: (II) Which will improve the efficiency of a Carnot engine more: a 1...
 15.24P: (II) A certain power plant puts out 580 MW of electric power. Estim...
 15.25P: (II) A nuclear power plant operates at 65% of its maximum theoretic...
 15.26P: (II) A heat engine exhausts its heat at 340°C and has a Carnot effi...
 15.27P: (II) A Carnot engine operating temperatures are 210°C and 45°C. The...
 15.28P: (II) A fourcylinder gasoline engine has an efficiency of 0.22 and ...
 15.29P: (II) A Carnot engine performs work at the rate of 520 kW with an in...
 15.30P: (II) A heat engine uses a heat source at 580°C and has an ideal (Ca...
 15.32P: (I) If an ideal refrigerator keeps its contents at 2.5°C when the h...
 15.33P: (I) The low temperature of a freezer cooling coil is 8°C and the d...
 15.34P: (II) What is the temperature inside an ideal refrigeratorfreezer t...
 15.35P: (II) A heat pump is used to keep a house warm at 22°C. How much wor...
 15.36P: (II) (a) What is the coefficient of performance of an ideal heat pu...
 15.37P: (II) What volume of water at 0°C can a freezer make into ice cubes ...
 15.38P: (II) How much less per year would it cost a family to operate a hea...
 15.39P: (I) What is the change in entropy of 320 g of steam at 100°C when i...
 15.40P: (I) 1.0 kg of water is heated from 0°C to 100°C. Estimate the chang...
 15.41P: (I) What is the change in entropy of of water at 1.00 m3 0°C when i...
 15.42P: (II) A 5.8kg box having an initial speed of 4.0 m/s slides along a...
 15.43P: (II) If 1.00 m3 of water at 0°C is frozen and cooled to 8.0°C by b...
 15.44P: (II) An aluminum rod conducts 8.40 cal/s from a heat source maintai...
 15.45P: (II) A 2.8kg piece of aluminum at 28.5°C is placed in 1.0 kg of wa...
 15.46P: (II) A falling rock has kinetic energy KE just before striking the ...
 15.47P: (II) 1.0 kg of water at 35°C is mixed with 1.0 kg of water at 45°C ...
 15.48P: (III) A real heat engine working between heat reservoirs at 970 K a...
 15.49P: (II) Calculate the probabilities, when you throw two dice, of obtai...
 15.50P: (II) Suppose that you repeatedly shake six coins in your hand and d...
 15.51P: (III) A bowl contains many red, orange, and green jelly beans, in e...
 15.52P: (III) Rank the following fivecard hands in order of increasing pro...
 15.53P: (I) Solar cells (Fig. 15–26) can produce about 40 W of electricity ...
 15.54P: (II) Energy may be stored by pumping water to a high reservoir when...
 15.55P: (II) Water is stored in an artificial lake created by a dam (Fig. 1...
 15.56GP: An inventor claims to have built an engine that produces 2.00 MW of...
 15.57GP: When of heat is added to a gas enclosed in a cylinder fitted with a...
 15.58GP: A restaurant refrigerator has a coefficient of performance of 4.6. ...
 15.59GP: A particular car does work at the rate of about 7.0 kJ/s when trave...
 15.60GP: A “Carnot” refrigerator (the reverse of a Carnot engine) absorbs he...
 15.61GP: It has been suggested that a heat engine could be developed that ma...
 15.62GP: A cooling unit for a new freezer has an inner surface area of 8.0 m...
 15.63GP: Refrigeration units can be rated in “tons.” A 1ton air conditionin...
 15.64GP: Two 1100kg cars are traveling 85 km/h in opposite directions when ...
 15.65GP: A 110g insulated aluminum cup at 35°C is filled with 150 g of wate...
 15.66GP: The burning of gasoline in a car releases about 3.0*104 kcal/gal. I...
 15.67GP: A Carnot engine operates with TL =20o C and has an efficiency of 25...
 15.68GP: Calculate the work done by an ideal gas in going from state A to st...
 15.69GP: A 38% efficient power plant puts out 850 MW of electrical power. Co...
 15.70GP: Suppose a power plant delivers energy at 880 MW using steam turbine...
 15.71GP: A car engine whose output power is 135 hp operates at about 15% eff...
 15.72GP: An ideal monatomic gas is contained in a tall cylindrical jar of cr...
 15.73GP: Metabolizing 1.0 kg of fat results in about 3.7*107 J of internal e...
 15.74GP: (a) At a steam power plant, steam engines work in pairs, the heat o...
 15.75GP: Suppose a heat pump has a stationary bicycle attachment that allows...
 15.76GP: An ideal air conditioner keeps the temperature inside a room at 21°...
 15.77GP: An ideal heat pump is used to maintain the inside temperature of a ...
 15.1: An ideal gas expands isothermally, performing of work in the proces...
 15.15.1: An ideal gas expands isothermally, performing of work in the proces...
 15.2: One liter of air is cooled at constant pressure until its volume is...
 15.15.2: One liter of air is cooled at constant pressure until its volume is...
 15.3: Sketch a PV diagram of the following process: 2.5 L of ideal gas at...
 15.15.3: Sketch a PV diagram of the following process: 2.5 L of ideal gas at...
 15.4: A gas is enclosed in a cylinder fitted with a light frictionless pi...
 15.15.4: A gas is enclosed in a cylinder fitted with a light frictionless pi...
 15.15.5: A 1.0L volume of air initially at 3.5 atm of (gauge) pressure is a...
 15.5: A 1.0L volume of air initially at 3.5 atm of (gauge) pressure is a...
 15.15.6: The pressure in an ideal gas is cut in half slowly, while being kep...
 15.6: The pressure in an ideal gas is cut in half slowly, while being kep...
 15.15.7: In an engine, an almost ideal gas is compressed adiabatically to ha...
 15.7: In an engine, an almost ideal gas is compressed adiabatically to ha...
 15.15.8: An ideal gas expands at a constant total pressure of 3.0 atm from 4...
 15.8: An ideal gas expands at a constant total pressure of 3.0 atm from 4...
 15.15.9: 8.5 moles of an ideal monatomic gas expand adiabatically, performin...
 15.9: 8.5 moles of an ideal monatomic gas expand adiabatically, performin...
 15.15.10: Consider the following twostep process. Heat is allowed to flow ou...
 15.10: Consider the following twostep process. Heat is allowed to flow ou...
 15.15.11: Use the conservation of energy to explain why the temperature of a ...
 15.11: Use the conservation of energy to explain why the temperature of a ...
 15.15.12: The PV diagram in Fig. 1523 shows two possible states of a system c...
 15.12: The PV diagram in Fig. 1523 shows two possible states of a system c...
 15.15.13: When a gas is taken from a to c along the curved path in Fig. 1524,...
 15.13: When a gas is taken from a to c along the curved path in Fig. 1524,...
 15.15.14: How much energy would the person of Example 157 transform if instea...
 15.14: How much energy would the person of Example 157 transform if instea...
 15.15.15: Calculate the average metabolic rate of a 65kg person who sleeps 8...
 15.15: Calculate the average metabolic rate of a 65kg person who sleeps 8...
 15.15.16: A 65kg person decides to lose weight by sleeping one hour less per...
 15.16: A 65kg person decides to lose weight by sleeping one hour less per...
 15.15.17: (a) How much energy is transformed by a typical 65kg person who ru...
 15.17: (a) How much energy is transformed by a typical 65kg person who ru...
 15.15.18: A heat engine exhausts 8200 J of heat while performing 2600 J of us...
 15.18: A heat engine exhausts 8200 J of heat while performing 2600 J of us...
 15.15.19: What is the maximum efficiency of a heat engine whose operating tem...
 15.19: What is the maximum efficiency of a heat engine whose operating tem...
 15.15.20: The exhaust temperature of a heat engine is 230C. What is the high ...
 15.20: The exhaust temperature of a heat engine is 230C. What is the high ...
 15.15.21: A heat engine does 9200 J of work per cycle while absorbing 25.0 kc...
 15.21: A heat engine does 9200 J of work per cycle while absorbing 25.0 kc...
 15.15.22: A heat engines high temperature could be ambient temperature, becau...
 15.22: A heat engines high temperature could be ambient temperature, becau...
 15.15.23: Which will improve the efficiency of a Carnot engine more: a 10 C i...
 15.23: Which will improve the efficiency of a Carnot engine more: a 10 C i...
 15.15.24: A certain power plant puts out 580 MW of electric power. Estimate t...
 15.24: A certain power plant puts out 580 MW of electric power. Estimate t...
 15.15.25: A nuclear power plant operates at 65% of its maximum theoretical (C...
 15.25: A nuclear power plant operates at 65% of its maximum theoretical (C...
 15.15.26: A heat engine exhausts its heat at 340C and has a Carnot efficiency...
 15.26: A heat engine exhausts its heat at 340C and has a Carnot efficiency...
 15.15.27: A Carnot engines operating temperatures are 210C and 45C. The engin...
 15.27: A Carnot engines operating temperatures are 210C and 45C. The engin...
 15.15.28: A fourcylinder gasoline engine has an efficiency of 0.22 and deliv...
 15.28: A fourcylinder gasoline engine has an efficiency of 0.22 and deliv...
 15.15.29: A Carnot engine performs work at the rate of 520 kW with an input o...
 15.29: A Carnot engine performs work at the rate of 520 kW with an input o...
 15.15.30: A heat engine uses a heat source at 580C and has an ideal (Carnot) ...
 15.30: A heat engine uses a heat source at 580C and has an ideal (Carnot) ...
 15.15.31: A typical compact car experiences a total drag force of about 350 N...
 15.31: A typical compact car experiences a total drag force of about 350 N...
 15.15.32: If an ideal refrigerator keeps its contents at 2.5C when the house ...
 15.32: If an ideal refrigerator keeps its contents at 2.5C when the house ...
 15.15.33: The low temperature of a freezer cooling coil is and the discharge ...
 15.33: The low temperature of a freezer cooling coil is and the discharge ...
 15.15.34: What is the temperature inside an ideal refrigeratorfreezer that op...
 15.34: What is the temperature inside an ideal refrigeratorfreezer that op...
 15.15.35: A heat pump is used to keep a house warm at 22C. How much work is r...
 15.35: A heat pump is used to keep a house warm at 22C. How much work is r...
 15.36: What is the coefficient of performance of an ideal heat pump that e...
 15.15.36: What is the coefficient of performance of an ideal heat pump that e...
 15.37: What volume of water at 0C can a freezer make into ice cubes in 1.0...
 15.15.37: What volume of water at 0C can a freezer make into ice cubes in 1.0...
 15.38: How much less per year would it cost a family to operate a heat pum...
 15.15.38: How much less per year would it cost a family to operate a heat pum...
 15.39: What is the change in entropy of 320 g of steam at 100C when it is ...
 15.15.39: What is the change in entropy of 320 g of steam at 100C when it is ...
 15.40: 1.0 kg of water is heated from 0C to 100C. Estimate the change in e...
 15.15.40: 1.0 kg of water is heated from 0C to 100C. Estimate the change in e...
 15.41: What is the change in entropy of of water at 0C when it is frozen t...
 15.15.41: What is the change in entropy of of water at 0C when it is frozen t...
 15.42: A 5.8kg box having an initial speed of slides along a rough table ...
 15.15.42: A 5.8kg box having an initial speed of slides along a rough table ...
 15.43: If of water at 0C is frozen and cooled to by being in contact with ...
 15.15.43: If of water at 0C is frozen and cooled to by being in contact with ...
 15.44: An aluminum rod conducts from a heat source maintained at 225C to a...
 15.15.44: An aluminum rod conducts from a heat source maintained at 225C to a...
 15.45: A 2.8kg piece of aluminum at 28.5C is placed in 1.0 kg of water in...
 15.15.45: A 2.8kg piece of aluminum at 28.5C is placed in 1.0 kg of water in...
 15.46: A falling rock has kinetic energy KE just before striking the groun...
 15.15.46: A falling rock has kinetic energy KE just before striking the groun...
 15.47: 1.0 kg of water at 35C is mixed with 1.0 kg of water at 45C in a we...
 15.15.47: 1.0 kg of water at 35C is mixed with 1.0 kg of water at 45C in a we...
 15.48: A real heat engine working between heat reservoirs at 970 K and 650...
 15.15.48: A real heat engine working between heat reservoirs at 970 K and 650...
 15.49: Calculate the probabilities, when you throw two dice, of obtaining ...
 15.15.49: Calculate the probabilities, when you throw two dice, of obtaining ...
 15.50: Suppose that you repeatedly shake six coins in your hand and drop t...
 15.15.50: Suppose that you repeatedly shake six coins in your hand and drop t...
 15.51: A bowl contains many red, orange, and green jelly beans, in equal n...
 15.15.51: A bowl contains many red, orange, and green jelly beans, in equal n...
 15.52: Rank the following fivecard hands in order of increasing probabili...
 15.15.52: Rank the following fivecard hands in order of increasing probabili...
 15.53: Solar cells (Fig. 1526) can produce about 40 W of electricity per s...
 15.15.53: Solar cells (Fig. 1526) can produce about 40 W of electricity per s...
 15.54: Energy may be stored by pumping water to a high reservoir when dema...
 15.15.54: Energy may be stored by pumping water to a high reservoir when dema...
 15.55: Water is stored in an artificial lake created by a dam (Fig. 1527)....
 15.15.55: Water is stored in an artificial lake created by a dam (Fig. 1527)....
 15.56: An inventor claims to have built an engine that produces 2.00 MW of...
 15.15.56: An inventor claims to have built an engine that produces 2.00 MW of...
 15.57: at 215 K. Is there anything fishy about his claim? Explain. 57. Whe...
 15.15.57: at 215 K. Is there anything fishy about his claim? Explain. 57. Whe...
 15.58: A restaurant refrigerator has a coefficient of performance of 4.6. ...
 15.15.58: A restaurant refrigerator has a coefficient of performance of 4.6. ...
 15.59: A particular car does work at the rate of about when traveling at a...
 15.15.59: A particular car does work at the rate of about when traveling at a...
 15.60: A Carnot refrigerator (the reverse of a Carnot engine) absorbs heat...
 15.15.60: A Carnot refrigerator (the reverse of a Carnot engine) absorbs heat...
 15.61: It has been suggested that a heat engine could be developed that ma...
 15.15.61: It has been suggested that a heat engine could be developed that ma...
 15.62: A cooling unit for a new freezer has an inner surface area of and i...
 15.15.62: A cooling unit for a new freezer has an inner surface area of and i...
 15.63: Refrigeration units can be rated in tons. A 1ton air conditioning ...
 15.15.63: Refrigeration units can be rated in tons. A 1ton air conditioning ...
 15.64: Two 1100kg cars are traveling in opposite directions when they col...
 15.15.64: Two 1100kg cars are traveling in opposite directions when they col...
 15.15.65: A 110g insulated aluminum cup at 35C is filled with 150 g of water...
 15.65: A 110g insulated aluminum cup at 35C is filled with 150 g of water...
 15.15.66: The burning of gasoline in a car releases about If a car averages w...
 15.66: The burning of gasoline in a car releases about If a car averages w...
 15.15.67: A Carnot engine operates with and has an efficiency of 25%. By how ...
 15.67: A Carnot engine operates with and has an efficiency of 25%. By how ...
 15.15.68: Calculate the work done by an ideal gas in going from state A to st...
 15.68: Calculate the work done by an ideal gas in going from state A to st...
 15.15.69: A 38% efficient power plant puts out 850 MW of electrical power. Co...
 15.69: A 38% efficient power plant puts out 850 MW of electrical power. Co...
 15.15.70: Suppose a power plant delivers energy at 880 MW using steam turbine...
 15.70: Suppose a power plant delivers energy at 880 MW using steam turbine...
 15.15.71: A car engine whose output power is 135 hp operates at about 15% eff...
 15.71: A car engine whose output power is 135 hp operates at about 15% eff...
 15.15.72: An ideal monatomic gas is contained in a tall cylindrical jar of cr...
 15.72: An ideal monatomic gas is contained in a tall cylindrical jar of cr...
 15.15.73: Metabolizing 1.0 kg of fat results in about of internal energy in t...
 15.73: Metabolizing 1.0 kg of fat results in about of internal energy in t...
 15.15.74: (a) At a steam power plant, steam engines work in pairs, the heat o...
 15.74: (a) At a steam power plant, steam engines work in pairs, the heat o...
 15.15.75: Suppose a heat pump has a stationary bicycle attachment that allows...
 15.75: Suppose a heat pump has a stationary bicycle attachment that allows...
 15.15.76: An ideal air conditioner keeps the temperature inside a room at 21C...
 15.76: An ideal air conditioner keeps the temperature inside a room at 21C...
 15.15.77: An ideal heat pump is used to maintain the inside temperature of a ...
 15.77: An ideal heat pump is used to maintain the inside temperature of a ...
Solutions for Chapter 15: The Laws of Thermodynamics
Full solutions for Physics: Principles with Applications  7th Edition
ISBN: 9780321625922
Solutions for Chapter 15: The Laws of Thermodynamics
Get Full SolutionsThis expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 273 problems in chapter 15: The Laws of Thermodynamics have been answered, more than 192182 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Physics: Principles with Applications, edition: 7. Chapter 15: The Laws of Thermodynamics includes 273 full stepbystep solutions. Physics: Principles with Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321625922.

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parallel

any symbol
average (indicated by a bar over a symbol—e.g., v¯ is average velocity)

°C
Celsius degree

°F
Fahrenheit degree