 Chapter 1: Statistics: The Art and Science of Data
 Chapter 10: Inference in Practice
 Chapter 2: Describing Distributions of Data
 Chapter 3: Modeling Distributions of Data
 Chapter 4: Describing Relationships
 Chapter 5: Sampling and Surveys
 Chapter 6: Designing Experiments
 Chapter 7: Probability: What Are the Chances?
 Chapter 8: Probability Models
 Chapter 9: ntroduction to Inference
Statistics Through Applications 2nd Edition  Solutions by Chapter
Full solutions for Statistics Through Applications  2nd Edition
ISBN: 9781429219747
Statistics Through Applications  2nd Edition  Solutions by Chapter
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All possible (subsets) regressions
A method of variable selection in regression that examines all possible subsets of the candidate regressor variables. Eficient computer algorithms have been developed for implementing all possible regressions

Alternative hypothesis
In statistical hypothesis testing, this is a hypothesis other than the one that is being tested. The alternative hypothesis contains feasible conditions, whereas the null hypothesis speciies conditions that are under test

Assignable cause
The portion of the variability in a set of observations that can be traced to speciic causes, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a special cause.

Average
See Arithmetic mean.

Bernoulli trials
Sequences of independent trials with only two outcomes, generally called “success” and “failure,” in which the probability of success remains constant.

Block
In experimental design, a group of experimental units or material that is relatively homogeneous. The purpose of dividing experimental units into blocks is to produce an experimental design wherein variability within blocks is smaller than variability between blocks. This allows the factors of interest to be compared in an environment that has less variability than in an unblocked experiment.

Causal variable
When y fx = ( ) and y is considered to be caused by x, x is sometimes called a causal variable

Conditional variance.
The variance of the conditional probability distribution of a random variable.

Contingency table.
A tabular arrangement expressing the assignment of members of a data set according to two or more categories or classiication criteria

Continuity correction.
A correction factor used to improve the approximation to binomial probabilities from a normal distribution.

Convolution
A method to derive the probability density function of the sum of two independent random variables from an integral (or sum) of probability density (or mass) functions.

Cook’s distance
In regression, Cook’s distance is a measure of the inluence of each individual observation on the estimates of the regression model parameters. It expresses the distance that the vector of model parameter estimates with the ith observation removed lies from the vector of model parameter estimates based on all observations. Large values of Cook’s distance indicate that the observation is inluential.

Correlation matrix
A square matrix that contains the correlations among a set of random variables, say, XX X 1 2 k , ,…, . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are unity and the offdiagonal elements rij are the correlations between Xi and Xj .

Defect
Used in statistical quality control, a defect is a particular type of nonconformance to speciications or requirements. Sometimes defects are classiied into types, such as appearance defects and functional defects.

Defectsperunit control chart
See U chart

Enumerative study
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study

Erlang random variable
A continuous random variable that is the sum of a ixed number of independent, exponential random variables.

Error propagation
An analysis of how the variance of the random variable that represents that output of a system depends on the variances of the inputs. A formula exists when the output is a linear function of the inputs and the formula is simpliied if the inputs are assumed to be independent.

Error variance
The variance of an error term or component in a model.

Expected value
The expected value of a random variable X is its longterm average or mean value. In the continuous case, the expected value of X is E X xf x dx ( ) = ?? ( ) ? ? where f ( ) x is the density function of the random variable X.