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Solutions for Chapter 4.8: Elementary Statistics 12th Edition

Elementary Statistics | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321836960 | Authors: Mario F. Triola

Full solutions for Elementary Statistics | 12th Edition

ISBN: 9780321836960

Elementary Statistics | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321836960 | Authors: Mario F. Triola

Solutions for Chapter 4.8

Solutions for Chapter 4.8
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Textbook: Elementary Statistics
Edition: 12
Author: Mario F. Triola
ISBN: 9780321836960

Since 47 problems in chapter 4.8 have been answered, more than 382154 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Elementary Statistics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321836960. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Statistics, edition: 12. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chapter 4.8 includes 47 full step-by-step solutions.

Key Statistics Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • a-error (or a-risk)

    In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is actually false (also called a type II error).

  • Arithmetic mean

    The arithmetic mean of a set of numbers x1 , x2 ,…, xn is their sum divided by the number of observations, or ( / )1 1 n xi t n ? = . The arithmetic mean is usually denoted by x , and is often called the average

  • Bayes’ theorem

    An equation for a conditional probability such as PA B ( | ) in terms of the reverse conditional probability PB A ( | ).

  • Bivariate normal distribution

    The joint distribution of two normal random variables

  • Cause-and-effect diagram

    A chart used to organize the various potential causes of a problem. Also called a ishbone diagram.

  • Chi-square (or chi-squared) random variable

    A continuous random variable that results from the sum of squares of independent standard normal random variables. It is a special case of a gamma random variable.

  • Components of variance

    The individual components of the total variance that are attributable to speciic sources. This usually refers to the individual variance components arising from a random or mixed model analysis of variance.

  • Conditional probability mass function

    The probability mass function of the conditional probability distribution of a discrete random variable.

  • Contour plot

    A two-dimensional graphic used for a bivariate probability density function that displays curves for which the probability density function is constant.

  • Convolution

    A method to derive the probability density function of the sum of two independent random variables from an integral (or sum) of probability density (or mass) functions.

  • Cook’s distance

    In regression, Cook’s distance is a measure of the inluence of each individual observation on the estimates of the regression model parameters. It expresses the distance that the vector of model parameter estimates with the ith observation removed lies from the vector of model parameter estimates based on all observations. Large values of Cook’s distance indicate that the observation is inluential.

  • Critical value(s)

    The value of a statistic corresponding to a stated signiicance level as determined from the sampling distribution. For example, if PZ z PZ ( )( .) . ? =? = 0 025 . 1 96 0 025, then z0 025 . = 1 9. 6 is the critical value of z at the 0.025 level of signiicance. Crossed factors. Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.

  • Cumulative normal distribution function

    The cumulative distribution of the standard normal distribution, often denoted as ?( ) x and tabulated in Appendix Table II.

  • Deming’s 14 points.

    A management philosophy promoted by W. Edwards Deming that emphasizes the importance of change and quality

  • Distribution function

    Another name for a cumulative distribution function.

  • Error propagation

    An analysis of how the variance of the random variable that represents that output of a system depends on the variances of the inputs. A formula exists when the output is a linear function of the inputs and the formula is simpliied if the inputs are assumed to be independent.

  • Experiment

    A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study

  • First-order model

    A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irst-order response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irst-order model is also called a main effects model

  • Fractional factorial experiment

    A type of factorial experiment in which not all possible treatment combinations are run. This is usually done to reduce the size of an experiment with several factors.

  • Gamma function

    A function used in the probability density function of a gamma random variable that can be considered to extend factorials