- 7.1: Eight chemical elements do not have isotopes (different forms of th...
- 7.2: Vacation Days A U.S. Travel Data Center survey reported that Americ...
- 7.3: Spending for Postage A researcher wishes to estimate within $25 the...
- 7.4: Shopping Survey Arandom sample of 49 shoppers showed that they spen...
- 7.5: Lengths of Childrens Animated Films The lengths (in minutes) of a r...
- 7.6: Dog Bites to Postal Workers For a certain urban area, in a sample o...
- 7.7: Presidential Travel In a survey of 1004 individuals, 442 felt that ...
- 7.8: Vacation Sites A U.S. Travel Data Centers survey of 1500 adults fou...
- 7.9: Emergency Room Accidents In a study of 200 accidents that required ...
- 7.10: A local county has a very active adult education venue. A random sa...
- 7.11: Health Insurance Coverage for Children A federal report stated that...
- 7.12: Child Care Programs Astudy found that 73% of prekindergarten childr...
- 7.13: Baseball Diameters The standard deviation of the diameter of 18 bas...
- 7.14: MPGfor Lawn Mowers Arandom sample of 22 lawn mowers was selected, a...
- 7.15: Lifetimes of Snowmobiles A random sample of 15 snowmobiles was sele...
- 7.16: Length of Childrens Animated Films Use the data from Exercise 5 to ...
- 7.17: Burglaries For a certain urban area, it was found that in a sample ...
- 7.18: Hours Spent Studying Auniversity dean wishes to estimate the averag...
- 7.19: Money Spent on Road Repairs A researcher wishes to estimate within ...
- 7.20: Political Survey A political analyst found that 43% of 300 Republic...
- 7.21: Emergency Room Accidents In a study of 150 accidents that required ...
- 7.22: Television Set Ownership Asurvey of 90 families showed that 40 owne...
- 7.23: Skipping Lunch Anutritionist wishes to determine, within 3%, the tr...
- 7.24: Novel Pages A sample of 25 novels has a standard deviation of 9 pag...
- 7.25: Truck Safety Check Find the 90% confidence interval for the varianc...
- 7.26: Automobile Pollution A sample of 20 automobiles has a pollution by-...
Solutions for Chapter 7: Review Execises
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach 8th ed. | 8th Edition
`-error (or `-risk)
In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by rejecting a null hypothesis when it is actually true (also called a type I error).
Adjusted R 2
A variation of the R 2 statistic that compensates for the number of parameters in a regression model. Essentially, the adjustment is a penalty for increasing the number of parameters in the model. Alias. In a fractional factorial experiment when certain factor effects cannot be estimated uniquely, they are said to be aliased.
In a fractional factorial experiment when certain factor effects cannot be estimated uniquely, they are said to be aliased.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
A method of decomposing the total variability in a set of observations, as measured by the sum of the squares of these observations from their average, into component sums of squares that are associated with speciic deined sources of variation
Attribute control chart
Any control chart for a discrete random variable. See Variables control chart.
The tendency of data to cluster around some value. Central tendency is usually expressed by a measure of location such as the mean, median, or mode.
See Control chart.
A square matrix that contains the variances and covariances among a set of random variables, say, X1 , X X 2 k , , … . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are the variances of the random variables and the off-diagonal elements are the covariances between Xi and Xj . Also called the variance-covariance matrix. When the random variables are standardized to have unit variances, the covariance matrix becomes the correlation matrix.
A parameter in a tabular CUSUM algorithm that is determined from a trade-off between false alarms and the detection of assignable causes.
A subset of effects in a fractional factorial design that deine the aliases in the design.
A matrix that provides the tests that are to be conducted in an experiment.
A concept in parameter estimation that uses the variances of different estimators; essentially, an estimator is more eficient than another estimator if it has smaller variance. When estimators are biased, the concept requires modiication.
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study
Error of estimation
The difference between an estimated value and the true value.
The expected value of a random variable X is its long-term average or mean value. In the continuous case, the expected value of X is E X xf x dx ( ) = ?? ( ) ? ? where f ( ) x is the density function of the random variable X.
Fixed factor (or fixed effect).
In analysis of variance, a factor or effect is considered ixed if all the levels of interest for that factor are included in the experiment. Conclusions are then valid about this set of levels only, although when the factor is quantitative, it is customary to it a model to the data for interpolating between these levels.
Fractional factorial experiment
A type of factorial experiment in which not all possible treatment combinations are run. This is usually done to reduce the size of an experiment with several factors.
An arrangement of the frequencies of observations in a sample or population according to the values that the observations take on
Gamma random variable
A random variable that generalizes an Erlang random variable to noninteger values of the parameter r
Geometric random variable
A discrete random variable that is the number of Bernoulli trials until a success occurs.