- Chapter 1: Probability and Counting
- Chapter 10: Inequalities and Limit Theorems
- Chapter 11: Markov Chains
- Chapter 12: Markov Chain Monte Carlo
- Chapter 13: Poisson Processes
- Chapter 2: Conditional Probability
- Chapter 3: Random Variables and their Distributions
- Chapter 4: Expectation
- Chapter 5: Continuous Random Variables
- Chapter 6: Moments
- Chapter 7: Joint Distributions
- Chapter 8: Transformations
- Chapter 9: Conditional Expectation
Introduction to Probability 1st Edition - Solutions by Chapter
Full solutions for Introduction to Probability | 1st Edition
A formula used to determine the probability of the union of two (or more) events from the probabilities of the events and their intersection(s).
Adjusted R 2
A variation of the R 2 statistic that compensates for the number of parameters in a regression model. Essentially, the adjustment is a penalty for increasing the number of parameters in the model. Alias. In a fractional factorial experiment when certain factor effects cannot be estimated uniquely, they are said to be aliased.
The arithmetic mean of a set of numbers x1 , x2 ,…, xn is their sum divided by the number of observations, or ( / )1 1 n xi t n ? = . The arithmetic mean is usually denoted by x , and is often called the average
The portion of the variability in a set of observations that can be traced to speciic causes, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a special cause.
A qualitative characteristic of an item or unit, usually arising in quality control. For example, classifying production units as defective or nondefective results in attributes data.
A method of variable selection in regression that begins with all of the candidate regressor variables in the model and eliminates the insigniicant regressors one at a time until only signiicant regressors remain
Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).
Data consisting of counts or observations that can be classiied into categories. The categories may be descriptive.
Central limit theorem
The simplest form of the central limit theorem states that the sum of n independently distributed random variables will tend to be normally distributed as n becomes large. It is a necessary and suficient condition that none of the variances of the individual random variables are large in comparison to their sum. There are more general forms of the central theorem that allow ininite variances and correlated random variables, and there is a multivariate version of the theorem.
Coeficient of determination
See R 2 .
An experiment in which the treatments (experimental conditions) that are to be studied are included in the experiment. The data from the experiment are used to evaluate the treatments.
Continuous random variable.
A random variable with an interval (either inite or ininite) of real numbers for its range.
A dimensionless measure of the linear association between two variables, usually lying in the interval from ?1 to +1, with zero indicating the absence of correlation (but not necessarily the independence of the two variables).
Cumulative distribution function
For a random variable X, the function of X deined as PX x ( ) ? that is used to specify the probability distribution.
Used in statistical quality control, a defect is a particular type of nonconformance to speciications or requirements. Sometimes defects are classiied into types, such as appearance defects and functional defects.
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study
A property of a collection of events that indicates that their union equals the sample space.
A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study
Fisher’s least signiicant difference (LSD) method
A series of pair-wise hypothesis tests of treatment means in an experiment to determine which means differ.
Fraction defective control chart
See P chart
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