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Get Full Access to Statistics - Textbook Survival Guide
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# Solutions for Chapter 4.4: CONTINGENCY TABLES AND ASSOCIATION

## Full solutions for Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data | 4th Edition

ISBN: 9780321757272

Solutions for Chapter 4.4: CONTINGENCY TABLES AND ASSOCIATION

Solutions for Chapter 4.4
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##### ISBN: 9780321757272

Chapter 4.4: CONTINGENCY TABLES AND ASSOCIATION includes 33 full step-by-step solutions. Since 33 problems in chapter 4.4: CONTINGENCY TABLES AND ASSOCIATION have been answered, more than 142959 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data , edition: 4. Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321757272. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Statistics Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
• 2 k factorial experiment.

A full factorial experiment with k factors and all factors tested at only two levels (settings) each.

• Average

See Arithmetic mean.

• Bernoulli trials

Sequences of independent trials with only two outcomes, generally called “success” and “failure,” in which the probability of success remains constant.

• Central tendency

The tendency of data to cluster around some value. Central tendency is usually expressed by a measure of location such as the mean, median, or mode.

• Chi-square (or chi-squared) random variable

A continuous random variable that results from the sum of squares of independent standard normal random variables. It is a special case of a gamma random variable.

• Conditional mean

The mean of the conditional probability distribution of a random variable.

• Conditional variance.

The variance of the conditional probability distribution of a random variable.

• Contingency table.

A tabular arrangement expressing the assignment of members of a data set according to two or more categories or classiication criteria

• Control chart

A graphical display used to monitor a process. It usually consists of a horizontal center line corresponding to the in-control value of the parameter that is being monitored and lower and upper control limits. The control limits are determined by statistical criteria and are not arbitrary, nor are they related to speciication limits. If sample points fall within the control limits, the process is said to be in-control, or free from assignable causes. Points beyond the control limits indicate an out-of-control process; that is, assignable causes are likely present. This signals the need to ind and remove the assignable causes.

• Correction factor

A term used for the quantity ( / )( ) 1 1 2 n xi i n ? = that is subtracted from xi i n 2 ? =1 to give the corrected sum of squares deined as (/ ) ( ) 1 1 2 n xx i x i n ? = i ? . The correction factor can also be written as nx 2 .

• Counting techniques

Formulas used to determine the number of elements in sample spaces and events.

• Covariance

A measure of association between two random variables obtained as the expected value of the product of the two random variables around their means; that is, Cov(X Y, ) [( )( )] =? ? E X Y ? ? X Y .

• Erlang random variable

A continuous random variable that is the sum of a ixed number of independent, exponential random variables.

• Error of estimation

The difference between an estimated value and the true value.

• Estimator (or point estimator)

A procedure for producing an estimate of a parameter of interest. An estimator is usually a function of only sample data values, and when these data values are available, it results in an estimate of the parameter of interest.

• Experiment

A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study

• F distribution.

The distribution of the random variable deined as the ratio of two independent chi-square random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom.

• False alarm

A signal from a control chart when no assignable causes are present

• Frequency distribution

An arrangement of the frequencies of observations in a sample or population according to the values that the observations take on

• Geometric random variable

A discrete random variable that is the number of Bernoulli trials until a success occurs.

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