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Answer: Oxalic acid (H2C2O4) is present in many plants and

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 18.72 Chapter 18

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 18.72

Oxalic acid (H2C2O4) is present in many plants and vegetables. (a) Balance the following equation in acid solution: MnO2 4 1 C2O22 4 Mn21 1 CO2 (b) If a 1.00-g sample of H2C2O4 requires 24.0 mL of 0.0100 M KMnO4 solution to reach the equivalence point, what is the percent by mass of H2C2O4 in the sample?

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Biology Diversity Exam 3 Study Guide Prokaryotes: lack a membrane­bound nucleus; part of domain Bacteria and domain Archaea Anoxic Period: fossils of filamentous, rod­shaped morphology similar to modern bacteria Carbon Fixation: conversion of inorganic Carbon to organic Carbon How do we characterize Prokaryotes 1.) Morphology a.) Basic forms: rod­shaped, spherical (coccoid), and spiral b.) Aggregated: filaments 2.) Shared across Bacteria and Archaea 3.) Most comparisons – depended upon biochemical/genetic differences How do Bacteria and Archaea differ 1.) Type of bond 2.) Cell wall structure 3.) Genetic machinery associated with protein production differs How does the cell wall structure of Bacteria and Archaea differ Match the following terms to the corresponding characteristic. 1. ____ Archaea A. Have ESTER bonds between glycerol and fatty acid tails in their cell/plasma membranes. 2. ____ESTER bonds B. Unstable; Break down easily 3. ____Bacteria C. Stable; Do not break down easily 4. ____ETHER bonds D. Have ETHER bonds in their cell membranes; Allows them to survive under extreme conditions. Domain Archaea 1.) “Extremophiles”: primarily associated with extreme conditions  High salinity  High acid/base  High/Low temperature  Low on nutrients  Different chemical conditions 2.) No known parasites/pathogens 3.) Some have Symbiotic relationships a.) Commensal Symbiotic relationship (+ , Ø): one organism benefits, one organism neither hurt nor helped b.) Mutualistic Symbiotic relationship (+ , +): both organisms benefit from the relationship 4.) Thermophiles: High temperature conditions (60­80°C; 140­175°F)  Have “heat stable” enzymes  Strong cell membranes  Geysers/Hot springs  Thermal vents  EX 1: Pyrococcus Furiosus  EX 2: Thermus Aquaticus 5.) Acidophiles: Low pH (high acidity, ≤ 2.0)  Found in acidified environments  Including bogs and pine forests  Acid mine drainage  Food products  Yogurt, buttermilk, and sourcream  Can block proton uptake (increased protons in acidic conditions) 6.) Halophiles: High salinity situations  Optimal growth: 40% salinity  Great Salt Lake  Dead Sea  Foods  Soy sauce  Sauerkraut  Block salt uptake  Block H2O loss 7.) Methanogens:  Major producers of methane (atmospheric greenhouse gas)  Intestines of many organisms  Humans and cows  Released through flatulence (burping)  Wetlands/Swamps  Trash/Garbage dumps  Termite guts Domain Bacteria  Diversity poorly understood  Most basic way to separate bacteria into groups is to analyze cell wall structure through:  Gram­staining  Gives info about environmental tolerances  Insight into food/nutrient preferences  Gain info about response to toxins and medications How are Gram(+) bacteria different from Gram(­) bacteria Gram(+) Bacteria 1 Ph. Actinobacteria  Common soil bacteria  Associated with plants  roots  Mutualism  How do both organisms benefit  Dental plaque  What is biofilm  EX: Arthrobacter Globiformis (A.G)  EX: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M.T)  EX: Mycobacterium Leprae (M.L) What is Bioremediation How is M.T spread What disease is associated with M.L 2 Ph. Firmicutes  Bacillus bacteria  Streptococcus, Staphylococcus  EX: Bacillus Thuringiensis (B.T)  What is biological control  How does B.T work  EX: Bacillus Anthracis (B.A) What illnesses are associated with Streptococcus Staphylococcus Streptococcus & Staphylococcus both are often in COMMENSAL (+ , Ø) symbiotic relationships  Then become PATHOGENS (+ , ­) where one organism benefits and one is hurt.  EX: Streptococcus Pneumoniae (S.P)  EX: Staphylococcus Aureus (S.A) What kills S.P What does MRSA stand for Gram(­) Bacteria 1 Ph. Spirochaeta  Helical/coiled cells  Common in aquatic environments  Use corkscrew movements to swim  (Some) Pathogens  EX: Treponema – Syphilis  EX: Borrelia Burgdorferi – Causes Lyme disease Borrelia Burgdorferi  Good growing conditions (High rain)  Increased plant growth  Increased seed production (Ex. Acorns)  Increased mice/deer growth and reproduction  Increased hosts for ticks (deer ticks)  Leads to longer, larger Lyme disease outbreaks and increased contact with human populations  Increased infection 2.) Ph. Cyanobacteria  Also known as “Blue­green algae”  Produce toxins  Photosynthetic – Autotrophs  N fixers 3.) Ph. Proteobacteria  Largest, most diverse phylum  Found everywhere  Extremely diverse in physiological characteristics  EX: Escherichia Coli (E. Coli)  E.Coli 0157:H7  EX: Wolbachia Species  Parthogenesis  EX: Helicobacter Pylon  EX: Yersinia Pestis  EX: Geobacter Metallireducens What are the 3 forms of the plague Prokaryote Reproduction 1.) Binary Fission 2.) Horizontal Gene Transfer 3.) Conjugation 4.) Transduction 5.) Transformation Match the following prokaryote terms to the corresponding characteristics. 1.____Photoautotrophs A. Get carbon from inorganic CO2 2.____Chemolithoautotrophs B. Use photosynthesis 3.____Autotroph C. Oxidation of inorganic molecules 4.____Mixotroph D. Get carbon from organic sources 5.____Chemoheterotrophs E. Can use autotrophy or heterotrophy 6.____Photoheterotrophs F. Most prokaryotes, non­photosynthetic eukaryotes; Oxidation of organic molecules & organic carbon 7.____Heterotrophs E. Use sunlight and organic carbon What are Eukaryotes What is the Endosymbiotic Theory Who are the protists Aquatic Autotrophic Protists 1.) Phytoplankton 2.) Green Algae 3.) Diatoms 4.) Dinoflagellates 5.) Choanoflagellates Attached Aquatic Autotrophic Protists 1.) Green Algae 2.) Brown Algae (Stramenopila) 3.) Red Algae (Rhodophyta) Terrestrial Aquatic Heterotrophs 1.) Water molds (Oomycetes) What are osmotrophs Describe Plasmodial Slime Molds and Cellular Slime Molds.

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Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

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Answer: Oxalic acid (H2C2O4) is present in many plants and