Refer to the tabulated values of in Appendix IIB to calculate for the fuel cell breathalyzer, which employs the following reaction. ( for HC2H3O2(g) = -374.2 kJ/mol.)

Effective nuclear charge Explanation of many atomic properties (ionization energy etc.) relies in part on understanding how effective nuclear charge varies throughout the periodic table – there are several ways of calculating Z eff – simple empirical guides, such as Slater’s rules, can provide insight Slater’s rules ▯ Used to estimate effective nuclear charges ▯ [1s][2s2p][3s3p][3d][4s4p][4d][4f][5s5p][5d][5f]... ▯ All electrons to the right contribute 0 to shielding ▯ All electrons in the same group contribute 0.35 to shielding ▯ For s and p electrons, all electrons in the (n-1) shell contribute 0.85 each to the shielding ▯ All other electrons to the left contribute 1.0 to the shielding ▯ When considering [nd] or [nf] electrons, all electrons to the left contribute 1.0 to shielding Periodic variation of Z eff Increases left to right across a row Roughly constant down a group after an initial increase