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Solved: Consider the molecular views of an Al strip and

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 105E Chapter 18

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 105E

Consider the molecular views of an Al strip and Cu2+ solution. Draw a similar sketch showing what happens to the atoms and ions after the Al strip is submerged in the solution for a few minutes.

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Adaptations to Seawater ● Homeostasis­­ constancy in the internal environment ● Enantiostasis­­ constancy in the internal functions ○ Things can change, but the functions are maintained ● How is metabolic rate measured ○ Amount of oxygen used or CO2 produced ○ Ignores the contribution of anaerobic respiration ● Salinity ○ Can change rapidly which affects organisms’ distribution ○ Can directly affect organisms through osmosis and diffusion ○ Organisms regulate organic and inorganic cellular constituents to adjust salinity ○ Body fluids of fish are ⅓ the concentration of their environment ○ Stenohaline­­ organisms that live in a small range of salinities ○ Euryhaline­­ organisms that live in a wide range of salinities ○ Internal environments of almost all invertebrates differ from their external environments in ionic and osmotic characteristics ■ This results in ionic and osmotic gradient ○ Most invertebrates­­ have equal concentrations of cell constituents to seawater ■ They don’t osmoregulate ○ 8­17% of energy is osmoregulation ○ Freshwater bony fish ■ Internal salinity (osmolality) of 200­300 mOsm/kg ■ External salinity of 1­40 ■ Water enters and solutes exit ● Excess water through urine ● Get more solutes through active uptake in gills and eating ○ Saltwater bony fish ■ Osmolality of 300­500 ■ External salinity of 1000 ■ Solutes enter and water exits ● They drink 3­10 times as much water as freshwater fish ● Ions Na and Cl are eliminated in chloride cells in gills ● Diatomic ions are eliminated through kidneys ○ Hagfish­­ the only vertebrate that is isosmotic ○ Fish moving between fresh­ and saltwater ■ Fresh­ to saltwater is harder because the salinity gradient is much larger ○ Sharks and rays ■ Nearly isosmotic; slightly hyperosmotic ■ Little water movement, but still ion regulation ● Each ion moves independently of other ions ● About 500 ions are supplied from water ● The other 500 come from osmolytes urea and TMAO ○ Urea­­ a waste product; highly soluble and uncharged ○ Costly to synthesize, easily lost because of its diffusibility ○ Poisonous in large quantities­­ TMAO fixes that ● Rectal glands­­ remove salt from blood ○ What about freshwater sharks and rays ■ They don’t produce as much urea; ex: bullshark ● But they need some of it for when they are in saltwater ■ The freshwater ray lost almost all of its urea because it is landlocked ○ Marine reptiles and birds ■ Excrete through kidneys ● Temperature ○ Affects: metabolisms, enzymatic reactions, membrane properties, activity, growth, distribution, digestive rates, behavior, health ○ Ectothermic­­ body temperature is a product of the external environment ○ Endothermic­­ body temperature is determined by the metabolic furnace ○ Poikilothermic­­ changing body temperature ○ Homeothermic­­ consistent body temperature ○ Mammals, birds, some turtles, and two groups of fishes (Scombridae and Laminidae) are endotherms ○ Why are most aquatic animals ectotherms ■ Water has a high specific heat and high thermal conductivity ■ 3000 times the capacity as air for absorbing heat ○ Endotherms ■ Mammals­­ blubber and hair/fur ■ Birds­­ feathers ■ Fish­­ counter­current heat exchange in gills, swim bladder, and heater organs ● Scombrid tuna and Lamnid sharks ○ Vessels close to skin surface ○ Run from warm core to outer vessels (cold) ○ Red muscle ■ For sustained activity ■ Cruising ■ Lots of blood present; myoglobin ■ Use oxidative metabolism ○ White muscle ■ Burst performance ■ Uses mostly glycogen ■ Respire anaerobically

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 18, Problem 105E is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

The answer to “?Consider the molecular views of an Al strip and Cu2+ solution. Draw a similar sketch showing what happens to the atoms and ions after the Al strip is submerged in the solution for a few minutes.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 36 words. This full solution covers the following key subjects: solution, strip, Molecular, few, happens. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 82 chapters, and 9454 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 105E from chapter: 18 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 02/22/17, 04:35PM. Since the solution to 105E from 18 chapter was answered, more than 436 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. Chemistry: A Molecular Approach was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321809247. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, edition: 3.

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Solved: Consider the molecular views of an Al strip and