Three electrolytic cells are connected in a series. The electrolytes in the cells are aqueous copper(II) sulfate, gold(III) sulfate, and silver nitrate. A current of 2.33 A is applied, and after some time 1.74 g Cu is deposited. How long was the current applied? What mass of gold and silver were deposited?
AHS 100 Test 3 Study Guide Chapter 11: Gothic Art in France, England, and Italy Characteristics of Gothic churches and how they work -huge tall; vertical stained glass; pointed arches; exterior flying buttress for support; ribbed groin vaults; airy and bright colored; richly decorated with sculptures Chartres Cathedral, France (Gothic) -finished in 27 years, first church planned with flying buttresses; tons of stained glass windows still there today; cruciform; transept windows -Royal Portal of Chartres Cathedral, France (Gothic) -resurrection, Mary as queen of chivalry -Jamb statues from the Royal Portal, Chartres Cathedral, France (Gothic) -kings and queens from the old testament, represented wisdom; newer ones looked like Roman statues (contrapposto) -Rose window and lancets, Chartres Cathedral, France (Gothic) -perfect metaphor for God’s grace, new light, rose window looks like a flower; lancet window is long, looks like a lance; many had bible stories Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, France (Gothic) -has the more stained glass compared to walls; tells story of all French kings and queens; lancet windows Duccio, Maesta altarpiece (Gothic) -virgin and child with lifelike proportions; people look more relaxed; red silk cloaks stood for important, rich people Giotto, Frescoes of the Arena Chapel, Italy (Gothic) -read in registers; tells the story of Mary, Jesus, His passion, last judgment; observing nature Terms: Book of Hours- liturgy of the hours book/breviary; privately owned flying buttresses- channel the weight of the arch down to the ground pointed arches (how they differ from round arches)- can support 3x as much weight clerestory- second level of the cathedral vault- ceiling nave- open area in the middle rose window- big and round, looks like a flower lancet windows or lancets- super tall skinny windows; had bible figures pictured rib vaulting- channels weight of vault to the posts of the vault ambulatory- open area behind the altar transept- in a cruciform cathedral, the parts of the cathedral that corm the top, bottom, and sides of the cross narthex- the entrance area of the cathedral “lux nova”- new light (about stained glass windows) Chapter 12: Early Renaissance Art Characteristics of Italian versus Northern Early Renaissance Italian- connections with Classical Greek culture; Northern- TONS of detail; how things really appear Masaccio, Trinity (Italian Renaissance) -skeleton at the bottom; life is fleeting; painted niche Masaccio, The Tribute Money (Italian Renaissance) -narrative, Peter is portrayed 3x; shadows follow light from the actual window Botticelli, Birth of Venus (Italian Renaissance) -modest Venus pose, WAY didn’t go over well, all Greek/Roman Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise, doors from the Baptistery of Saint John, Florence Cathedral, (Italian Renaissance) -showed scenes from the Bible, low relief -Ghiberti, Jacob and Esau panel from Gates of Paradise (Italian Renaissance) -figures are all low relief, but the figures in the background are even lower and smaller to give the appearance of depth, linear perspective Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Double Portrait (Northern Renaissance), and its symbols -marriage (betrothal) ceremony, mirror shows detail, shoes off (sacred act), dog represents fidelity, fruit symbolizes fruitfulness in the marriage, loner candle represents the Holy Spirit, round mirror represents the Trinity Rogier van der Weyden, Deposition (Northern Renaissance) -every person reacted to the situation in a different way, Mary and Jesus in same-ish pose, skull present, intricate folds of fabric Terms: printmaking & connected terms: limited edition- multiple copies of an original image, indirect process, engraving, relief printing linear perspective: vanishing point perspective- mathematically ordering reality continuous narrative- a story told in an artwork, characters repeated memento mori- skull in paintings that reminds us that someday we will all die print-making- allows for multiple copies (limited edition); indirect process (relief printing) engraving- making tiny grooves, rub ink all over, but ink would stay in the crevices Chapter 13 High Renaissance Art Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa (Italian Renaissance) -private painting, light and shadow, sfumato, pyramid shape Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper (Italian Renaissance) -worked with oil tempera on plaster (oil based paint on water based surface), pyramid, deep space Leonardo da Vinci, Vitruvian Man (Italian Renaissance) -study of anatomy, dissected cadavers to find out; ideal proportions for a human Raphael, School of Athens (Italian Renaissance) -perspective, light and shadow, pyramid, Plato and Aristotle, fresco, decorated Pope’s apartment, shows how important classical learning was Michelangelo, David (Italian Renaissance) Contrapposto, marble, just before the battle with Goliath Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Rome (Italian Renaissance) -creation fall and redemption of humanity -Michelangelo, Creation of Adam from the Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Rome (Italian Renaissance) -at the moment of creation, fingers not touching Michelangelo, Last Judgment (from the Sistine Chapel), 48’x 44’ (Italian Renaissance) -painted almost 30 years after Sistine chapel Grunewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (German Renaissance) -hinged alter piece, Christ painted with the disease that was rampant then, inside has scenes from Christ’s life Durer, Self-Portrait (German Renaissance) -Leonardo of the North, printed engravings, -Adam and Eve -knew the proportions of the body, scientific observation, engraving Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights (Northern Renaissance) -creation, desires of flesh, final judgment, bad view of the clergy Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Return of the Hunters (Northern Renaissance) -caught nothing, genre painting (everyday people doing everyday things) Terms: Perspective- typically linear, things get smaller the farther away they are sfumato- without borders, in the manner of smoke (Mona Lisa) pyramid-shaped composition- triangular shaped postures of people contrapposto- hips tilted at opposite angle to shoulders chiaroscuro- uses of light and shadow Chapter 14 Baroque characteristics of Baroque -motion, emotion, drama, high-contrasting Bernini, David (Baroque) -twisted, taking aim before throwing the stone to kill Goliath, like a spring Caravaggio, The Calling of Saint Matthew (Baroque) -Christ is in the shadows with Matt in the light beam, posed hand like Adam in Sistine Chapel Gentileschi, Judith and her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes (Baroque) -imitated Caravaggio, 2 versions of the same scene (one SUPER grotesque, one not as much), Bible story of beautiful warrior Judith Velazquez, Las Meninas (Baroque) -the bridesmaids, painted what he saw (not every petal of the flower but a splash of color), illusions of 3D forms Rembrandt, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp (Baroque) -every person’s face is clear, all known people who paid to be in the picture Rembrandt, Captain Frans Banning Cocq Mustering His Company (Baroque) -group portrait, not all faces seen, people filed lawsuits because they paid to be in the picture Terms: etching (know how this is different from engraving)- easier because you could correct them intaglio- out of the groove chiaroscruro- using light in a way that it falls like out of a broken window Chapter 15 Art of the Americas Mayan- overachievers Pyramid (“El Castillo”) with Chacmool in foreground, Chichén Itzá. (Native American, Maya). -steppe pyramid, bent sacrifices over backward over altar Lintel 24: Lady Xoc & the Shield Jaguar. 725 CE. Yaxchilan, Mexico. (Mayan) -low relief (cookie-cutter style), carved around the figures Aztec- warriors The Mother Goddess, Coatlicue (Native American, Aztec). -basalt (hard to carve), snakes on skirt (represented blood), arms cut off, for there to be life there must be death Inca- along west coast of S. America Machu Picchu, Peru (Native American, Inca) -in the Andes mountains, religions retreat or star observatory, terracing for crops shows people lived there, hydraulics for waste and to bring water Irregular stone wall from Machu Picchu, the terracing -stones fitted without mortar, allows them to move without falling apart during earthquakes Pueblo- community/town Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (Native American) -wool was a huge income source, females learned to weave, agriculture- based -pottery tradition in Native American culture -fired clay, animals and geometric patterns Nampeyo. Pottery examples of her work -hired to remake old pottery, used different designs but were still based off old stuff Plains Parfleche designs (Native American) -made of rawhide, untanned leather (SUPER hard), storage containers Battle-scene hide painting (Native American) -storyteller told story while dancing that would animate the figures and show the story Woodland Reconstruction and photos of the mound at Cahokia, Illinois (Native American) -largest pyramid in N America, 6-40 thousand people, biggest city until Philadelphia Terms: codex/codices- written books, accordion folded parfleche- untanned hide, sometimes used to store dry goods coil or coil-built construction- used to make pottery, smoothed coils and fire-hardened terracing- step-like levels of the ground used to plant crops stepped pyramid style- layered pyramids