Construct a truth table for-each of these compound propositions.

SolutionStep 1In this problem we need to provide the truth table for each of the given compound propositions.1. Consider where p is proposition and denotes “exclusive or”.The exclusive or of P and P is denoted by is nothing but the proposition that is true when exactly one of P and P is true and is false otherwise.PPTTFFFFStep 2b) denotes the opposite of the truth value of P.Therefore the exclusive or of P and is denoted by is nothing but the proposition that is true when exactly one of P and is true and is false otherwise.PPTFTFTTStep 3c) denotes the opposite of the truth value of Q.Therefore the exclusive or of P and is denoted by is nothing but the proposition that is true when exactly one of P and is true and is false otherwise.PQQTTFTTFTFFTFFFFTTStep 4d) denotes the opposite of the truth value of P and denotes the opposite of the truth value of Q. Therefore the exclusive or of and is denoted by is nothing but the proposition that is...