The density of osmium is reported by one source to be 22610 kg/ m3 . What is this density in g/cm3 ? What is the mass of a block of osmium measuring 10.0 cm 8.0 cm 9.0 cm?
PSYCH 355 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Twenty-Statements Test (Kuhn & McPartland, 1954) responses for individualistic vs collectivistic cultures o Twenty-Statements Test “I am…” statements about an individual’s personality composed by the individual; revels the extent of a culture’s influence on people’s identities because these statements suggest how we think about ourselves o Individualistic cultures- people tend to focus on inner attributes (personality traits, attitudes, or abilities) o Collectivistic cultures- people focus on their connections with others by considering themselves in terms of concrete roles, relationships, and group memberships Independent vs interdependent self-construals o Independent “self” is distinct from others Internal characteristics for “I am…” Stable sense of self (boundaries are “fixed” between self & those around us) *diagram in class #13 notes or on pg 211 of book Boundary between “ingroup” & “outgroup” is fluid/flexible Ex) a stranger in your psych class can become a friend/part of your “ingroup” o Interdependent Self is part of others (interconnected) Social characteristics for “I am…” defined by social relationships Sense of self is more flexible Ex) behave one way when around your grandma compared to around a close friend Boundary between “ingroup” & “outgroup” more closed/fixed More difficult for a stranger to become part of “ingroup” People are more self-defining so a interdependent person is more wary of letting new people into their “ingroup” *diagram in class #13 notes or on pg 213 of book o Differences across cultures Individualistic cultures tend to have more independent self-construals of themselves Collectivistic cultures tend to have more interdependent self-construals of themselves o Situational view of culture Believes that we have both “tools” (interdependence/independence) in our “tool box” but our culture encourages us to use one more often than the other People can vary in whether they view themselves as interdependent/independent based on what kind of situation they are in Examples: o Marriage interdependent o Sports football more interdependent since it relies on a team effort, while tennis can be view as more independent since you can play on a team of just yourself o Work can be interdependent or independent o Job interview independent since you are required to present your inner qualities o Residential Mobility & Self-Construal *only used U.S. participants Assessed mobility of a person by the # of times they moved before coming to college & at what age they moved Assessed independence of person by: Listing 5 personality traits & rating how central they are to sense of self from 1-7 Asses interdependence of person by: Listing 5 groups they’ve been apart of (past/present) & using same 7pt scale to rate them Results: 1 & 2 move had a major impact on interdependent vs independent self-construal Higher centrality rating for independent compared to interdependent o Priming Self-Construal Independence & interdependence prim participants read either passage (randomly assigned) & identify independent nouns (i/me) or interdependent nouns (we/our) THEN read a story when one friend (Lisa) refuses to help another (Amy) Asked these questions: How desirable is Lisa’s behavior (7pt scale) Is Lisa obligated to help Amy (yes/no) Are Lisa’s actions punishable (yes/no) Results: Priming for independence/interdependence can impact behavior Culture & Gender o Culture can influence how people view gender equality b/c some cultures believe that women should be treated the same as men but others believe that men should be granted more power/rights/privileges o William & Best (1990) Sex Role Ideology scale includes items that reflect “traditional” views on gender (ex: “for the good of the family, a wife should have sexual relations with her husband whether she wants to or not”) and more “modern” or “egalitarian” views (ex: “marriage should not interfere with a woman’s career any more than it does with a man’s”); 7pt scale of 1= very traditional view to 7= very egalitarian views A study using this in 14 different countries found that there are some very different views towards gender equality in the world; men & women tended to share somewhat similar views; in every case (except two) males had significantly more traditional gender views than females o Boserup (1970) Proposed that agriculture had distant implications for gender norms Two ways for traditional agricultural cultivation “shifting cultivation” earth dug up w/a garden hoe; women usually do most of the work w/their kids nearby “plow cultivation”” large animal used to pull a plow; men usually do most of the work b/c controlling the plow requires a lot of muscular strength o In many societies where this is practiced, women tend to do more domestic affair work Boserup argued that even when a country moved out of agriculture & into industry it still preserved some gender norms usually associated w/traditional cultivation methods o Alesina et al. (2011) Tested Boserup’s thesis by exploring whether historical use of the plow predicted current attitudes about gender roles/female labor force participation around the world Found that places that primarily used the plow method have less egalitarian gender norms & less female participation in the labor force today Same pattern emerged in U.S. immigrants immigrant women Cognitive Dissonance o Feeling of discomfort caused by knowledge of inconsistency w/in self When experienced we’re motivated to attempt to reduce it (3 strategies) Change behavior Change belief about yourself Justify o Free-choice paradigm Done in U.S. Given list of top 10 albums; rank order Choose between 5 & 6 ranked album (this creates dissonance) 10 min interval when participants completes questionnaire (filler task) Given the actual albums to view & then rate desirability of each & rand order Results: nd Ranked/rated chosen album more highly 2 time o Hoshino-Browne et al. (2005) European- & Chinese-Canadian participants Assigned to self or friend condition Self condition= making the decision based on personal self Friend condition= making the decision based on a friend’s personal self Employed free-choice paradigm Results: More dissonance shown by European-Canadians for the self condition More dissonance shown by Chinese-Canadians for the friend condition Conclusions: Collectivistic cultures experience more dissonance when the decision could make them question a particular relationship w/someone Individualistic cultures experience more dissonance when the decision could make them question themselves Why do people from different cultures differ in their need to be consistent o The major differences between cultures stems from whether they are individualistic or collectivistic, which then can determine whether they’re independent or interdependent. Cultures that are individualistic/independent are more concerned with being consistent across all situations. While collectivistic/interdependent cultures are not concerned with being consistent across cultures, but being consistent across time within each of the relationships they have with other people. Subjective vs objective self-awareness o Subjective self-awareness: consider ourselves from perspective of subject w/litter awareness of ourselves as individuals From the inside out Concerned with the world outside ourselves o Objective self-awareness: consider how we appear to others & conscious of being evaluated From the outside in Concerns are directed specifically at ourselves o Why the experience of objective self-awareness tends to be aversive (at least in the U.S.) We tend to view ourselves more self-critically when we are aware of how we might be falling short of their standards We tend to be very critical when we adopt the perspective of an audience because we then take on the role of a judge o How does culture affect people’s self-awareness Collectivistic cultures w/interdependent self-construals tend to have objective self-awareness Individualistic cultures w/independent self-construals tend to have subjective self-awareness Entity vs incremental theories of self o Entity theory of self: aspects of the self are largely resistant to change o Incremental theory of self: belief we can easily change and are expected to o How do these theories affect how people respond to difficulties Incremental theory of self: Fail a test focus on their study efforts & strategies they use and improve/change them Entity theory of self: Fail a test respond by blaming their static intellectual ability o How do these theories differ across cultures North America- entity theory of self when it comes to intelligence Ex) SAT designed to measure innate aptitudes and someone’s effort in their classes Asia- incremental theories of self when it comes to intelligence Ex) people in Japan get into a university by taking an entrance exam that tests a person to master of a large amount of material that they study before the test Self-enhancement o Motivation to view oneself positively o Self-enhancement strategies Self-serving bias- tendency for people exaggerate how good they think they are Downward social comparison- comparing our performance to the performance of someone who is doing even worse than you Upward social comparison- when we compare our performance with someone who is doing better than we are Compensatory self-enhancement- compensating for doing poorly on a certain activity by focusing on how good one is at something unrelated to that activity Discounting- reducing the perceived importance of the domain in which you performed poorly External attribution- when people attribute the cause of their actions to something outside themselves Internal attribution- people attribute the cause of their actions to something within ourselves Basking in the reflected glory- when we emphasize our connection to a successful group we belong to and we feel better about ourselves o Do East Asians really self-enhance less than North Americans Research seems to support that East Asians do seem to lack enhancement motivations There is cultural variation among the kind of tactics What are some alternative explanations for this finding East Asians really are just as motivated as Westerners to evaluate themselves positively, but some Western biases in research methods prevent us from seeing these motivations East Asians value a different set of traits from those that have been explored in research so far Current studies are not measuring people’s “true” feelings but instead tapping into differences in cultural norms for describing oneself East Asians could be feigning modesty in current studies Predestination o A belief that before birth, it has already been determined whether one will spend eternity in heaven or who will burn in hell forever o How does it relate to cultural influences on self-enhancement The distinction between spending eternity in hell or heaven is believed to be a motivator to lead people to make efforts to interpret their situation positively motivations for self-enhancement grew There’s a positive relation between independence/individualism & self-esteem and is found in both individualistic/collectivistic cultures Individualistic cultures encourage people to be more self-sufficient & not rely on others suggests that as cultures become more individualistic, there is more motivation to see oneself positively Alternative perspective: motivations for self-enhancement in some cultures is not due to individualism but instead due to economic inequality Self-improvement o Process of seeking out one’s potential weaknesses and working on correcting them o How does it relate to the concept of “face” Face- amount of social value others give an individual if they live up to the standards associated with their position o How does it relate to prevention and promotion orientations toward losses & gains Prevention orientation- a concern with correcting one’s weaknesses and avoiding others’ negative judgments Trying to avoid bad things Prevention focus: Focus efforts on things they don’t do well b/c correcting shortcomings will help them avoid a failure Promotion orientation- a concern with advancing oneself and aspiring for gains Trying to secure good things Promotion focus: Strive for opportunities for advancement & should focus their efforts on things they can do well will provide more opportunities for success Things they do poorly should be avoided b/c they are not likely to lead to success What level of universality characterizes self-enhancement/self-improvement o Existential universal How has Protestantism influenced achievement motivation o Max Weber proposed that even though predestination lasted only a couple generations, it did last long enough to be converted into a more enduring code of behavior o Weber believed that these attitudes spread throughout Protestant communities & laid the foundation for the development of capitalism o When working, protestants should be entirely focused on their work & remain a detached attitude toward potential distractions b/c of the important nature of their work o When not working, protestants should feel free to switch back to a more relaxed style o Protestant anxiety about salvation is the driving force behind their work ethic this is also put together with the view that people are inherently wicked & depraved How does culture influence choice o Iyengar & Lepper (1999) Participants: 5 grade Asian-American & European-American students Participants played a computer game for 20 minutes Assign students to 1 of 3 conditions Personal choice condition- students are allowed to make any choice they want for the computer game Outgroup choice condition- same options but one is already chosen for them by someone who’s opinion they don’t value very highly Ingroup choice condition- same options but one is already chosen for them by someone who’s opinion they do value highly Dependent variable- how many games they attempted during the 20 minutes they were allowed to play the game Results: *figure 8.9 on pg 332 in book European-American students didn’t attempt as many games when in the outgroup/ingroup choice condition reacted negatively to not being able to make the choices themselves o They attempted the most amount of games when in the personal choice condition Asian-American students o In the outgroup choice condition didn’t make as many attempts o In the personal choice condition made more attempts than the outgroup choice o In the ingroup choice condition made the most amount of attempts o So the Asian-Americans seemed more motivated to play the game when a trusted other made the choice for them o Snibbe & Markus (2005) Working-class & upper-middle-class Americans Complete a questionnaire & then offered a pen & then asked what they thought about the pen Randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions Free-choice condition- participants were able to choose whatever pen they wanted Usurped choice condition- participants allowed to choose but then the experimenter replaced the pen with a different one Results: *figure 8.11 on pg 337 in book Working class o Showed about the same satisfaction about the pen in either condition Upper-middle class o Showed more satisfaction for the pen in the free-choice condition compared to the usurped choice Conclusions Researchers argue that upper-middle-class Americans are raised to favor choices & express themselves through their choices Working-class Americans grow up learning that most of what they encounter in life is beyond their control o Rozin et al. (2006) Compared participants from the U.S. and from Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, & the UK) Asked if they would prefer a choice of 10 ice cream flavors or 50 ice cream flavors European cultures said they would prefer 10 flavors & people in the U.S. would prefer 50 flavors o Oettingen studies Study 1 Studied perception of control & efficacy of school kids in West & East Berlin “If I want to do well in school, I can” extent that one has feelings of primary control/efficacy, they would endorse this statement West Berlin kids endorsed this item more than East Berlin kids West German kids felt they had more control (in schoolwork) than East German kids Study 2 *learned helplessness- decreased feelings of control associated with them suffering from psychological costs (stress/depression) Studied behavioral signs of depression (learned helplessness) in East & West Berliners East Berliners were far more likely to show overt signs of depression than West Berliners o TED Talk by Sheena Iyengar (viewed in class) What are the three assumptions about choice Make your own choices; more options= better choices; never say no to choice Why should we doubt the veracity of these assumptions Anagram study w/kids making your own choice only works best when the individual is separate from others (not a collective) Eastern Europe/former communist study they felt overwhelmed with the number of choices Baby situation study: baby was on life support & parents were either given the choice to keep/take child on/off life support or allowed the doctor to make the decision o Parents from the U.S. parents made the decision & they engaged in more negative thoughts o Parents from France parents let doctor make the decision How does culture influence motivations for harmony & distinctiveness o Harmony/conformity: Americans have shown a great deal of conformity in some studies but people from more collectivistic cultures conform even more (especially to their ingroups) People from collectivistic cultures express their belongingness by making what they think are common choices o Distinctiveness: Motivations vary across cultures Individualistic cultures show their distinctiveness/uniqueness by making unique choices Analytic & Holistic Thinking o Analytic thinking: Focus on objects which are understood as existing separately from their contexts and are comprised of component parts Understood via use of systematic, logical rules & universal properties o Holistic thinking: Focus on contexts; association between objects, objects & context; objects understood by relationship to context Understood via experience w/associations o What are some possible origins of these thinking styles Argued to arise from the different social experiences people have within individualistic & collectivistic societies Collectivistic societies: Attention directed at relational concerns interdependent self- construal tend to conceive of people in terms of their relationships with others holistic thinking Individualistic societies: Attention focused on objects independent self-construal someone’s focus on their inner attributes & less on relationships analytic thinking o Cultural differences Believed that Western & East Asian differences stem from differences between the Greeks & the Chinese Greeks: Analytic thinking World is collection of unchanging objects that can be categorized by a set of properties seen in Aristotle’s view that a rock falls b/c it possesses the property “gravity” Development of elaborate logic system that searched for the truth according to abstract rules/syllogisms Chinese: Holistic thinking Emphasized harmony, interconnectedness, and change View the world as consisting of continuously interacting substances Field dependence vs field independence o Field dependence- the tendency to view objects as bound to their backgrounds o Field independence- the tendency to separate objects from their backgrounds o How do these relate analytic & holistic thinking Analytic thinkers tend to show field independence b/c they focus on objects as separate from their background Holistic thinkers tend to show field dependence b/c they focus on association between objects & context Masuda & Nisbett (2001) “Fish Study” o American & Japanese participants look at underwater scenes & asked to describe them o Japanese describe more of the background, whereas Americans describe more about the fish o After they were shown additional scenes with the same fish but some were in the original background and some were put into a new background o Asked if they recognized the fish in the scenes o Results: American participants recognized fish they have seen equally well regardless of the background Japanese participants recognized the fish better when they were with the original background Masuda, Ellsworth et al. (2008) o American & Japanese participants watched animated scenes on a computer o There was a target person & people in background showing facial expressions Background people sometimes showed the same expression as the target person & sometimes they didn’t o Participants had to judge what target person was experiecing o Results: Japanese judgments were influenced by the people in the background American judgments were not influenced by background people Dispositional vs situational attributions o Dispositional attribution- explanations based on personality & internal attributes o Situational attribution- explanations based on contextual variables Fundamental attribution error o A tendency to ignore situational information while focusing on dispositional information when making judgments about people’s behaviors o Miller (1984) Studied attribution across two cultures- America & India Children (8, 11, 15 years old) & adults Found that as Americans get older, they participate more in dispositional attribution Fundamental attribution error seen during adulthood Indian people tend to participate in situational attribution more than dispositional attribution Naïve dialecticism o A perspective in which events & objects in the world are perceived as interconnected and fluid o What type of thinking style encourages this Holistic thinking Monochromic vs polychromic time o Monochromic time: Time is linear & discrete; preference for sequenced activities; emphasis on the schedule o Polychronic time: Time is continuous/flexible; comfort w/shifting attention between events happening simultaneously; emphasis on the event o Levine & Norenzayan (1999) Measured “pace of life” of several cities in countries around the world Correlates: Vitality of economy: better economy faster pace Individualism/collectivism: more individual faster pace Heart disease: faster pace higher rate of death from CHD Subjective well-being: faster pace higher subjective well-being Low vs high context cultures o Low-context culture- cultures in which there is relatively less consensual info shared among individuals, so that people need to rely heavily on explicit communication o High-context culture- cultures in which there is much consensual info share among individuals, so that much can be understood w/out it needing to be explicitly said James-Lange theory of emotions o Theory that says emotions are primarily perceptions of physiological responses to stimuli o Facial-feedback hypothesis we experience emotions as a result of the positions of our facial muscles Ex) pen experiment discussed in class Two-Factor theory of emotion o Theory that says emotions are primarily our interpretations of physiological responses to stimuli o Schachter & Singer (1962) They were able to determine that people do interpret their emotions based on their physiological responses to the situation they are currently in Appraisals o Evaluation of what the situation/event means o What kinds of appraisals are universal Basic needs Emotions o 6 basic emotions: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust o Evidence of universality Study 1 from Ekman people from U.S, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, & Japan were able to accurately identify photos of 6 basic emotions Study 2 from Ekman Papa New Guinea participants were able to accurately identify facial expressions of emotions from photos of U.S. participants o Evidence of cultural variability Study 3 from Ekman U.S. participants were not able to accurately identify facial expressions expressed by photographed Papa New Guinea participants Study 4 from Ekman U.S. & Japanese participants view a disgusting video & facial expressions are videotaped (group 1) Videotaped facial expressions shown to other participants & identified what emotion was showed (group 2) Also did same procedure but with experimenter in the room while watching the disgusting video o Cultural display rules- cultural specific rules that govern which facial expressions are appropriate in a given situation & how intensely they should be exhibited Amplification (express more); deamplification (express less); neutralization (show nothing); masking (show something else); simulation (show even if not feeling) o Universality of physiological reactions The Minangkabau study Minangkabau men & U.S. men/women Given instructions to show a facial expression for 10 minutes Measured heart rate, skin conductance, & respiration (focused on heart rate in class) o Cultural variation How rude experiment Chinese- & European-Canadians Rude experimenter Measure heart rate & blood pressure Chinese-Canadians show faster decline in blood pressure than European-Canadians How does culture influence people’s daily emotional lives o In one study based on Japanese and American participants, they were given a number of emotions that varied on two dimensions Whether the emotion was positive or negative Whether the emotion was interpersonally engaged or disengaged o Asked how often they experienced each emotion o Japanese: Positive interpersonally engaged emotions reported a lot more positive feelings in general Positively interpersonally disengaged emotions were not closely tied to general positive feelings o American: Positive interpersonally disengaged emotions more closely tied w/general positive feelings Positive interpersonally engaged emotions not closely tied to general positive feelings Subjective Well-Being o The feeling of how satisfied one is with one’s life o Why do rates of subjective well-being vary across cultures Many factors Money: Access to money & ability to meet basic needs of life tend to have a higher subjective well-being Usually a bigger impact on low-income societies/cultures b/c a little extra money can make a big difference Human rights: Those in countries that promote human rights the most tend to have the happiest citizens Equality: Overall equality among people in a country is associated with greater subjective well-being o What factors predict life satisfaction differently across cultures Individualistic societies- experience of positive emotions tend to be a good predictor of a person’s life satisfaction Collectivistic societies- if someone is living up to others’ standards for being a good person tends to affect their life satisfaction How happy they think they should be