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The density of osmium is reported by one source to be

Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl ISBN: 9780547125329 153

Solution for problem 114 Chapter 1

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Chemistry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780547125329 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Chemistry | 8th Edition

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Problem 114

The density of osmium is reported by one source to be 22610 kg/ m3 . What is this density in g/cm3 ? What is the mass of a block of osmium measuring 10.0 cm 8.0 cm 9.0 cm?

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PSYCH 355 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE  Twenty-Statements Test (Kuhn & McPartland, 1954) responses for individualistic vs collectivistic cultures o Twenty-Statements Test “I am…” statements about an individual’s personality composed by the individual; revels the extent of a culture’s influence on people’s identities because these statements suggest how we think about ourselves o Individualistic cultures- people tend to focus on inner attributes (personality traits, attitudes, or abilities) o Collectivistic cultures- people focus on their connections with others by considering themselves in terms of concrete roles, relationships, and group memberships  Independent vs interdependent self-construals o Independent  “self” is distinct from others  Internal characteristics for “I am…”  Stable sense of self (boundaries are “fixed” between self & those around us)  *diagram in class #13 notes or on pg 211 of book  Boundary between “ingroup” & “outgroup” is fluid/flexible  Ex) a stranger in your psych class can become a friend/part of your “ingroup” o Interdependent  Self is part of others (interconnected)  Social characteristics for “I am…” defined by social relationships  Sense of self is more flexible  Ex) behave one way when around your grandma compared to around a close friend  Boundary between “ingroup” & “outgroup” more closed/fixed  More difficult for a stranger to become part of “ingroup”  People are more self-defining so a interdependent person is more wary of letting new people into their “ingroup”  *diagram in class #13 notes or on pg 213 of book o Differences across cultures  Individualistic cultures tend to have more independent self-construals of themselves  Collectivistic cultures tend to have more interdependent self-construals of themselves o Situational view of culture  Believes that we have both “tools” (interdependence/independence) in our “tool box” but our culture encourages us to use one more often than the other  People can vary in whether they view themselves as interdependent/independent based on what kind of situation they are in  Examples: o Marriage interdependent o Sports football more interdependent since it relies on a team effort, while tennis can be view as more independent since you can play on a team of just yourself o Work can be interdependent or independent o Job interview independent since you are required to present your inner qualities o Residential Mobility & Self-Construal  *only used U.S. participants  Assessed mobility of a person by the # of times they moved before coming to college & at what age they moved  Assessed independence of person by:  Listing 5 personality traits & rating how central they are to sense of self from 1-7  Asses interdependence of person by:  Listing 5 groups they’ve been apart of (past/present) & using same 7pt scale to rate them  Results:  1 & 2 move had a major impact on interdependent vs independent self-construal  Higher centrality rating for independent compared to interdependent o Priming Self-Construal  Independence & interdependence prim participants read either passage (randomly assigned) & identify independent nouns (i/me) or interdependent nouns (we/our)  THEN read a story when one friend (Lisa) refuses to help another (Amy)  Asked these questions:  How desirable is Lisa’s behavior (7pt scale)  Is Lisa obligated to help Amy (yes/no)  Are Lisa’s actions punishable (yes/no)  Results:  Priming for independence/interdependence can impact behavior  Culture & Gender o Culture can influence how people view gender equality b/c some cultures believe that women should be treated the same as men but others believe that men should be granted more power/rights/privileges o William & Best (1990)  Sex Role Ideology scale includes items that reflect “traditional” views on gender (ex: “for the good of the family, a wife should have sexual relations with her husband whether she wants to or not”) and more “modern” or “egalitarian” views (ex: “marriage should not interfere with a woman’s career any more than it does with a man’s”); 7pt scale of 1= very traditional view to 7= very egalitarian views  A study using this in 14 different countries found that there are some very different views towards gender equality in the world; men & women tended to share somewhat similar views; in every case (except two) males had significantly more traditional gender views than females o Boserup (1970)  Proposed that agriculture had distant implications for gender norms  Two ways for traditional agricultural cultivation  “shifting cultivation” earth dug up w/a garden hoe; women usually do most of the work w/their kids nearby  “plow cultivation”” large animal used to pull a plow; men usually do most of the work b/c controlling the plow requires a lot of muscular strength o In many societies where this is practiced, women tend to do more domestic affair work  Boserup argued that even when a country moved out of agriculture & into industry it still preserved some gender norms usually associated w/traditional cultivation methods o Alesina et al. (2011)  Tested Boserup’s thesis by exploring whether historical use of the plow predicted current attitudes about gender roles/female labor force participation around the world  Found that places that primarily used the plow method have less egalitarian gender norms & less female participation in the labor force today  Same pattern emerged in U.S. immigrants immigrant women  Cognitive Dissonance o Feeling of discomfort caused by knowledge of inconsistency w/in self  When experienced we’re motivated to attempt to reduce it (3 strategies)  Change behavior  Change belief about yourself  Justify o Free-choice paradigm  Done in U.S.  Given list of top 10 albums; rank order  Choose between 5 & 6 ranked album (this creates dissonance)  10 min interval when participants completes questionnaire (filler task)  Given the actual albums to view & then rate desirability of each & rand order  Results: nd  Ranked/rated chosen album more highly 2 time o Hoshino-Browne et al. (2005)  European- & Chinese-Canadian participants  Assigned to self or friend condition  Self condition= making the decision based on personal self  Friend condition= making the decision based on a friend’s personal self  Employed free-choice paradigm  Results:  More dissonance shown by European-Canadians for the self condition  More dissonance shown by Chinese-Canadians for the friend condition  Conclusions:  Collectivistic cultures experience more dissonance when the decision could make them question a particular relationship w/someone  Individualistic cultures experience more dissonance when the decision could make them question themselves  Why do people from different cultures differ in their need to be consistent o The major differences between cultures stems from whether they are individualistic or collectivistic, which then can determine whether they’re independent or interdependent. Cultures that are individualistic/independent are more concerned with being consistent across all situations. While collectivistic/interdependent cultures are not concerned with being consistent across cultures, but being consistent across time within each of the relationships they have with other people.  Subjective vs objective self-awareness o Subjective self-awareness: consider ourselves from perspective of subject w/litter awareness of ourselves as individuals  From the inside out  Concerned with the world outside ourselves o Objective self-awareness: consider how we appear to others & conscious of being evaluated  From the outside in  Concerns are directed specifically at ourselves o Why the experience of objective self-awareness tends to be aversive (at least in the U.S.)  We tend to view ourselves more self-critically when we are aware of how we might be falling short of their standards  We tend to be very critical when we adopt the perspective of an audience because we then take on the role of a judge o How does culture affect people’s self-awareness  Collectivistic cultures w/interdependent self-construals tend to have objective self-awareness  Individualistic cultures w/independent self-construals tend to have subjective self-awareness  Entity vs incremental theories of self o Entity theory of self: aspects of the self are largely resistant to change o Incremental theory of self: belief we can easily change and are expected to o How do these theories affect how people respond to difficulties  Incremental theory of self:  Fail a test focus on their study efforts & strategies they use and improve/change them  Entity theory of self:  Fail a test respond by blaming their static intellectual ability o How do these theories differ across cultures  North America- entity theory of self when it comes to intelligence  Ex) SAT designed to measure innate aptitudes and someone’s effort in their classes  Asia- incremental theories of self when it comes to intelligence  Ex) people in Japan get into a university by taking an entrance exam that tests a person to master of a large amount of material that they study before the test  Self-enhancement o Motivation to view oneself positively o Self-enhancement strategies  Self-serving bias- tendency for people exaggerate how good they think they are  Downward social comparison- comparing our performance to the performance of someone who is doing even worse than you  Upward social comparison- when we compare our performance with someone who is doing better than we are  Compensatory self-enhancement- compensating for doing poorly on a certain activity by focusing on how good one is at something unrelated to that activity  Discounting- reducing the perceived importance of the domain in which you performed poorly  External attribution- when people attribute the cause of their actions to something outside themselves  Internal attribution- people attribute the cause of their actions to something within ourselves  Basking in the reflected glory- when we emphasize our connection to a successful group we belong to and we feel better about ourselves o Do East Asians really self-enhance less than North Americans  Research seems to support that East Asians do seem to lack enhancement motivations  There is cultural variation among the kind of tactics  What are some alternative explanations for this finding  East Asians really are just as motivated as Westerners to evaluate themselves positively, but some Western biases in research methods prevent us from seeing these motivations  East Asians value a different set of traits from those that have been explored in research so far  Current studies are not measuring people’s “true” feelings but instead tapping into differences in cultural norms for describing oneself East Asians could be feigning modesty in current studies  Predestination o A belief that before birth, it has already been determined whether one will spend eternity in heaven or who will burn in hell forever o How does it relate to cultural influences on self-enhancement  The distinction between spending eternity in hell or heaven is believed to be a motivator to lead people to make efforts to interpret their situation positively motivations for self-enhancement grew  There’s a positive relation between independence/individualism & self-esteem and is found in both individualistic/collectivistic cultures  Individualistic cultures encourage people to be more self-sufficient & not rely on others suggests that as cultures become more individualistic, there is more motivation to see oneself positively  Alternative perspective: motivations for self-enhancement in some cultures is not due to individualism but instead due to economic inequality  Self-improvement o Process of seeking out one’s potential weaknesses and working on correcting them o How does it relate to the concept of “face”  Face- amount of social value others give an individual if they live up to the standards associated with their position o How does it relate to prevention and promotion orientations toward losses & gains  Prevention orientation- a concern with correcting one’s weaknesses and avoiding others’ negative judgments  Trying to avoid bad things  Prevention focus:  Focus efforts on things they don’t do well b/c correcting shortcomings will help them avoid a failure  Promotion orientation- a concern with advancing oneself and aspiring for gains  Trying to secure good things  Promotion focus:  Strive for opportunities for advancement & should focus their efforts on things they can do well will provide more opportunities for success  Things they do poorly should be avoided b/c they are not likely to lead to success  What level of universality characterizes self-enhancement/self-improvement o Existential universal  How has Protestantism influenced achievement motivation o Max Weber proposed that even though predestination lasted only a couple generations, it did last long enough to be converted into a more enduring code of behavior o Weber believed that these attitudes spread throughout Protestant communities & laid the foundation for the development of capitalism o When working, protestants should be entirely focused on their work & remain a detached attitude toward potential distractions b/c of the important nature of their work o When not working, protestants should feel free to switch back to a more relaxed style o Protestant anxiety about salvation is the driving force behind their work ethic this is also put together with the view that people are inherently wicked & depraved  How does culture influence choice o Iyengar & Lepper (1999)  Participants: 5 grade Asian-American & European-American students  Participants played a computer game for 20 minutes  Assign students to 1 of 3 conditions  Personal choice condition- students are allowed to make any choice they want for the computer game  Outgroup choice condition- same options but one is already chosen for them by someone who’s opinion they don’t value very highly  Ingroup choice condition- same options but one is already chosen for them by someone who’s opinion they do value highly  Dependent variable- how many games they attempted during the 20 minutes they were allowed to play the game  Results:  *figure 8.9 on pg 332 in book  European-American students didn’t attempt as many games when in the outgroup/ingroup choice condition reacted negatively to not being able to make the choices themselves o They attempted the most amount of games when in the personal choice condition  Asian-American students o In the outgroup choice condition didn’t make as many attempts o In the personal choice condition made more attempts than the outgroup choice o In the ingroup choice condition made the most amount of attempts o So the Asian-Americans seemed more motivated to play the game when a trusted other made the choice for them o Snibbe & Markus (2005)  Working-class & upper-middle-class Americans  Complete a questionnaire & then offered a pen & then asked what they thought about the pen  Randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions  Free-choice condition- participants were able to choose whatever pen they wanted  Usurped choice condition- participants allowed to choose but then the experimenter replaced the pen with a different one  Results:  *figure 8.11 on pg 337 in book  Working class o Showed about the same satisfaction about the pen in either condition  Upper-middle class o Showed more satisfaction for the pen in the free-choice condition compared to the usurped choice  Conclusions  Researchers argue that upper-middle-class Americans are raised to favor choices & express themselves through their choices  Working-class Americans grow up learning that most of what they encounter in life is beyond their control o Rozin et al. (2006)  Compared participants from the U.S. and from Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, & the UK)  Asked if they would prefer a choice of 10 ice cream flavors or 50 ice cream flavors  European cultures said they would prefer 10 flavors & people in the U.S. would prefer 50 flavors o Oettingen studies  Study 1  Studied perception of control & efficacy of school kids in West & East Berlin  “If I want to do well in school, I can” extent that one has feelings of primary control/efficacy, they would endorse this statement  West Berlin kids endorsed this item more than East Berlin kids West German kids felt they had more control (in schoolwork) than East German kids  Study 2  *learned helplessness- decreased feelings of control associated with them suffering from psychological costs (stress/depression)  Studied behavioral signs of depression (learned helplessness) in East & West Berliners  East Berliners were far more likely to show overt signs of depression than West Berliners o TED Talk by Sheena Iyengar (viewed in class)  What are the three assumptions about choice  Make your own choices; more options= better choices; never say no to choice  Why should we doubt the veracity of these assumptions  Anagram study w/kids making your own choice only works best when the individual is separate from others (not a collective)  Eastern Europe/former communist study they felt overwhelmed with the number of choices  Baby situation study: baby was on life support & parents were either given the choice to keep/take child on/off life support or allowed the doctor to make the decision o Parents from the U.S.  parents made the decision & they engaged in more negative thoughts o Parents from France parents let doctor make the decision  How does culture influence motivations for harmony & distinctiveness o Harmony/conformity:  Americans have shown a great deal of conformity in some studies but people from more collectivistic cultures conform even more (especially to their ingroups)  People from collectivistic cultures express their belongingness by making what they think are common choices o Distinctiveness:  Motivations vary across cultures  Individualistic cultures show their distinctiveness/uniqueness by making unique choices  Analytic & Holistic Thinking o Analytic thinking:  Focus on objects which are understood as existing separately from their contexts and are comprised of component parts  Understood via use of systematic, logical rules & universal properties o Holistic thinking:  Focus on contexts; association between objects, objects & context; objects understood by relationship to context  Understood via experience w/associations o What are some possible origins of these thinking styles  Argued to arise from the different social experiences people have within individualistic & collectivistic societies  Collectivistic societies:  Attention directed at relational concerns interdependent self- construal tend to conceive of people in terms of their relationships with others holistic thinking  Individualistic societies:  Attention focused on objects independent self-construal someone’s focus on their inner attributes & less on relationships analytic thinking o Cultural differences  Believed that Western & East Asian differences stem from differences between the Greeks & the Chinese  Greeks:  Analytic thinking  World is collection of unchanging objects that can be categorized by a set of properties seen in Aristotle’s view that a rock falls b/c it possesses the property “gravity”  Development of elaborate logic system that searched for the truth according to abstract rules/syllogisms  Chinese:  Holistic thinking  Emphasized harmony, interconnectedness, and change  View the world as consisting of continuously interacting substances  Field dependence vs field independence o Field dependence- the tendency to view objects as bound to their backgrounds o Field independence- the tendency to separate objects from their backgrounds o How do these relate analytic & holistic thinking  Analytic thinkers tend to show field independence b/c they focus on objects as separate from their background  Holistic thinkers tend to show field dependence b/c they focus on association between objects & context  Masuda & Nisbett (2001) “Fish Study” o American & Japanese participants look at underwater scenes & asked to describe them o Japanese describe more of the background, whereas Americans describe more about the fish o After they were shown additional scenes with the same fish but some were in the original background and some were put into a new background o Asked if they recognized the fish in the scenes o Results:  American participants recognized fish they have seen equally well regardless of the background  Japanese participants recognized the fish better when they were with the original background  Masuda, Ellsworth et al. (2008) o American & Japanese participants watched animated scenes on a computer o There was a target person & people in background showing facial expressions  Background people sometimes showed the same expression as the target person & sometimes they didn’t o Participants had to judge what target person was experiecing o Results:  Japanese judgments were influenced by the people in the background  American judgments were not influenced by background people  Dispositional vs situational attributions o Dispositional attribution- explanations based on personality & internal attributes o Situational attribution- explanations based on contextual variables  Fundamental attribution error o A tendency to ignore situational information while focusing on dispositional information when making judgments about people’s behaviors o Miller (1984)  Studied attribution across two cultures- America & India  Children (8, 11, 15 years old) & adults  Found that as Americans get older, they participate more in dispositional attribution  Fundamental attribution error seen during adulthood  Indian people tend to participate in situational attribution more than dispositional attribution  Naïve dialecticism o A perspective in which events & objects in the world are perceived as interconnected and fluid o What type of thinking style encourages this  Holistic thinking  Monochromic vs polychromic time o Monochromic time:  Time is linear & discrete; preference for sequenced activities; emphasis on the schedule o Polychronic time:  Time is continuous/flexible; comfort w/shifting attention between events happening simultaneously; emphasis on the event o Levine & Norenzayan (1999)  Measured “pace of life” of several cities in countries around the world  Correlates:  Vitality of economy: better economy faster pace  Individualism/collectivism: more individual faster pace  Heart disease: faster pace higher rate of death from CHD  Subjective well-being: faster pace higher subjective well-being  Low vs high context cultures o Low-context culture- cultures in which there is relatively less consensual info shared among individuals, so that people need to rely heavily on explicit communication o High-context culture- cultures in which there is much consensual info share among individuals, so that much can be understood w/out it needing to be explicitly said  James-Lange theory of emotions o Theory that says emotions are primarily perceptions of physiological responses to stimuli o Facial-feedback hypothesis we experience emotions as a result of the positions of our facial muscles  Ex) pen experiment discussed in class  Two-Factor theory of emotion o Theory that says emotions are primarily our interpretations of physiological responses to stimuli o Schachter & Singer (1962)  They were able to determine that people do interpret their emotions based on their physiological responses to the situation they are currently in  Appraisals o Evaluation of what the situation/event means o What kinds of appraisals are universal  Basic needs  Emotions o 6 basic emotions: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust o Evidence of universality  Study 1 from Ekman people from U.S, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, & Japan were able to accurately identify photos of 6 basic emotions  Study 2 from Ekman Papa New Guinea participants were able to accurately identify facial expressions of emotions from photos of U.S. participants o Evidence of cultural variability  Study 3 from Ekman U.S. participants were not able to accurately identify facial expressions expressed by photographed Papa New Guinea participants  Study 4 from Ekman  U.S. & Japanese participants view a disgusting video & facial expressions are videotaped (group 1)  Videotaped facial expressions shown to other participants & identified what emotion was showed (group 2)  Also did same procedure but with experimenter in the room while watching the disgusting video o Cultural display rules- cultural specific rules that govern which facial expressions are appropriate in a given situation & how intensely they should be exhibited  Amplification (express more); deamplification (express less); neutralization (show nothing); masking (show something else); simulation (show even if not feeling) o Universality of physiological reactions  The Minangkabau study  Minangkabau men & U.S. men/women  Given instructions to show a facial expression for 10 minutes  Measured heart rate, skin conductance, & respiration (focused on heart rate in class) o Cultural variation  How rude experiment  Chinese- & European-Canadians  Rude experimenter  Measure heart rate & blood pressure  Chinese-Canadians show faster decline in blood pressure than European-Canadians  How does culture influence people’s daily emotional lives o In one study based on Japanese and American participants, they were given a number of emotions that varied on two dimensions  Whether the emotion was positive or negative  Whether the emotion was interpersonally engaged or disengaged o Asked how often they experienced each emotion o Japanese:  Positive interpersonally engaged emotions reported a lot more positive feelings in general  Positively interpersonally disengaged emotions were not closely tied to general positive feelings o American:  Positive interpersonally disengaged emotions more closely tied w/general positive feelings  Positive interpersonally engaged emotions not closely tied to general positive feelings  Subjective Well-Being o The feeling of how satisfied one is with one’s life o Why do rates of subjective well-being vary across cultures  Many factors  Money:  Access to money & ability to meet basic needs of life tend to have a higher subjective well-being  Usually a bigger impact on low-income societies/cultures b/c a little extra money can make a big difference  Human rights:  Those in countries that promote human rights the most tend to have the happiest citizens  Equality:  Overall equality among people in a country is associated with greater subjective well-being o What factors predict life satisfaction differently across cultures  Individualistic societies- experience of positive emotions tend to be a good predictor of a person’s life satisfaction  Collectivistic societies- if someone is living up to others’ standards for being a good person tends to affect their life satisfaction  How happy they think they should be

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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 8
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780547125329

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The density of osmium is reported by one source to be