Mean Height If a researcher wanted to know the mean height (the mean is the sum of all the measurements divided by the number of measurements) of women in the United States, the height of every woman would have to be measured and then the mean height calculatedan impossible task. Instead, researchers find a representative sample of women and find the mean height of the sample. Because the entire population of women is not used, there is a possibility that the calculated mean height is not the true mean height. For one study, researchers used the formula , where m is the true meanheight, in inches, of all women, to be 90% sure of the range of values for the true mean height. Using this inequality, what is the range of mean heights of women in the United States? Round to the nearest tenth of an inch. (Source: Based on data from the National Center for Health Statistics)

Lecturegivenon3/22/16 Antibodies–Y-shaped,twoaminoacidsjoinedbydisulfatebonds;thereisaconstant regionandavariableregion • Constantregionisthesameforeveryantibodyproduced • Variableregionisdifferentbasedondifferentgenes • Antibodiespromoteantigeneliminationthrough: o Neutralization-bindingtosurfaceproteinsonavirusorbacteriumand blockingitsabilitytoinfect o Agglutination–usingbothbondingsitesofanantibodytojoininvading cellstogetherinaclump o Precipation–linkdissolvedantigenmoleculestogether o Activationofcomplementsystem Cell-mediatedimmunity–anadaptiveresponseproducedbyT-cells,respondsto pathogensthathavealreadyenteredintothebodycells • KindsofTcells: o CytotoxicTcells o HelperTcells o MemoryTcells • Cell-mediatedresponseisproducedbycytotoxicTcells,battlepathogensthat enterbodycells • HelperTcellstriggerbothcell-mediatedandhumoralresponse,signalsfromthe helpercellsinitiateproductionofantibodies • TworequirementsmustbemetforahelperTcelltoactivateadaptiveresponse: o Foreignmoleculemustbepresentthatcanbindspecificallytoanantigen receptor o Antigenmustbedisplayedonsurfaceofantigen-presentingcell;includes macrophagesandBcells • Macrophagesingestforeignparticlesandbreakthemdown,andthenself proteinsbindtothenon-selfmolecules;theseselfproteinsdisplaythenon-self onthecellsurface • HelperTcellsrecognizeandbindtotheselfandnon-selfcombination–calleda self-nonselfcomplex • ActivatedhelperTcellspromoteimmuneresponsethroughsecretingproteins o StimulateclonalselectionofhelperTcellswhichproducesmemoryand effectorhelperTcells o ActivateBcellsandstimulatetheimmuneresponse o StimulatetheactivityofcytotoxicTcells CytotoxicTcells–theonlyTcellsthatkillinfectedcellsoncetheyareactivated • Clonalselectionoccursandtheeffectorcytotoxiccellsidentifyinfectedcells throughaself-nonselfcomplex • KillerTcellsbindtotheinfectedcell,whichactivatesittosynthesizetoxic proteinslikeperferin–thismakesholesintheinfectedcell’smembranewhich causeslysesordeath Chapter43:ReproductionandEmbryonicDevelopment Lecturegiven3/24/16 *mustunderstandthestructuresofthemaleandfemalereproductiveanatomy ModesofReproduction: • Asexualreproduction o Creationofgeneticallyidenticaloffspringbyoneparent o Rapidformofreproduction o Lessgeneticdiversitycomparedtosexualreproduction o Canoccurvia 1. budding–newindividualsformonadult;canstaythereorbreak off 2. fission–parentanimalbreaksintwopieces 3. fragmentation-piecesofanimalsbreakofftoformnewanimals o Parthenogenesis–formofasexualreproduction,stimulatesaneggto divide(usuallytriggeredbysperm)andproducethenextindividual • Sexualreproduction o Joiningofgametes–eggsandsperm o Someanimalsusebothmodesofreproduction o Hermaphroditism–individualhasbothmaleandfemalereproduction systems;makesiteasiertofindamate,butcanstillexchangegametes withotherindividuals o Twotypes: 1. Externalfertilization–wheneggsandspermaredischargednear eachothersimultaneously;fishandamphibians 2. Internalfertilization–spermisdepositedinthefemale reproductivetractinvariousways;mostterrestrialspecies HumanReproduction • Bothspeciesmusthaveasetofgonads,ductsforgametetransport,and structuresforcopulation